'Gul-i sad-warg' rose References
Rosa centifolia Linn.
Habitat : Cultivated chiefly in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar.
Ayurvedic : Shatapatri, Shatapatrikaa (Shatapatra is equated with Nelumbo nucifera.), Taruni, Devataruni, Karnikaa, Chaarukesharaa, Laakshaa, Gandhaaddhyaa. (Flowers—usually pink and double.)
Unani : Gul-e-Surkh. [in other sources: = Rosa damascena]
Siddha/Tamil : Iroja, Rajapoo.
Action : Flowers—a decoction is prescribed for inflammation of the mouth and pharynx, and ulcers of the intestine. Powder of rose buttons and seeds—astringent in haemorrhage and diarrhoea. The flowers and leaves contain 1.3 and 8.5% of saponin respectively. Petels are reported to contain methionine sulphoxide.
Cabbage rose yields a volatile oil (0.2%) consisting mainly of citronellol, geraniol, nerol, phenylethanol, linalool and citral. It contains 15% tannins (oligomeric proanthocyanidins).
Article (misc) (2007) Page(s) 15.
No species of rose was more important economically or culturally more significant in Iran than the "hundred-petalled rose" (gul-i şad barg) or Rosa centifolia. Characterized by its densely packed petals, it was highly valued for the sweetness of its scent. The thirteenth-century agricultural and horticultural manual, Āsār va aḥyā' [by Rashid al-din Fadl-allāh Hamadānī (1247?-1318)], mentions varieties with one hundred and even two hundred petals, and the Irshad al-zirā‘a refers to both yellow and red varieties, such as the "fiery centifolia of Mashhad" (ātish ĩ mashhadĩ) Commonly referred to in the West as the Cabbage rose, it was introduced into Europe via the Netherlands in the sixteenth or early seventeenth century, either directly from Iran during the reign of Shah 'Abbas I, a period of vigorous trade Relations and cultural Exchange between the Safavid state and Holland, or else through the Ottoman empire during the time of Sultan Süleyman the Magnificent, whose court evinced an unprecedented interest in the culture of flowers, and in roses and rose oil in particular.
Article (misc) (2007) Page(s) 20-21. Includes photo(s).
The use of flowers and floral symbolism figured prominently in ancient Iranian religions, which developed an Elaborate "language of flowers"...In Zoroastrian religion, and especially in Mazdaism, a different flower or herb was associated with each of the deities called yazatas, who presided over the days of the month and who were honored in special liturgical ceremonies. ....the rose was associated...with Daena, one of the female yazatas, who was the deity of Religion. Moreover, her species of rose was even specified in the Pahlavi texts as the gul-e sad varg (New Per. gul-i şad barg), the "hundred-petalled rose," that is, Rosa centifolia, which as already indicated was renowned for its sweet fragrance.
The Daena represented a central concept in Zoroastrian theology, daēnā (Middle Pers. dēn denoting religion not in the traditional sense but, rather, man's spiritual self, his inner vision, and moral conscience. In view of the importance of the sophianic principle in Zoroastrianism, daēnā also referred to innate humen wisdom as an emanation of divine wisdom, a quality always associated in Persian thought with the feminine. Henry Corbin discerned in the figure of the Daena the female archetype of wisdom and intuitive vision who represents the secret presence of the Eternal feminine in man, and who, necessarily construed as an angelophany, is the "Angel of his incarnate soul," his heavenly guide and celestial Counterpart (see Fig. 1). [Angel Holding a hundred-petalled rose, Rosa centifolia, Iran, 1575-1600. Courtesy of the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. Art and History Collection, LTS1995.2.72.]
...Daena's appearance was heralded by her beautiful scent, which could be discerned from afar by the soul of the righteous as she wafted toward him like a perfumed breeze. This scent, which stemmed from her association with the centifolia rose, was interpreted as the scent of the soul itself, a notion supported by her reply when asked about her identity: "I am none other than you yourself...your own daēnā, who has been made beautiful by your own nature."
Article (magazine) (2006)
.....R. x centifolia trichomes resemble those of R. x damascena ‘bifera’. One difference is that they seem to have redder head-cells (Fig.): they are highly branched (Fig.) and may be very long (Fig.).
.....R. x centifolia and R. x damascena cultivars are both in the section Gallicanae and genetically related.....Thus, these cultivars could have preserved some traits of their common ancestor, R. gallica. Indeed, these species have the same kind of glandular trichomes on leaves and sepals and nearly the same VOCs in sepals.
Book (2006) Page(s) 42.
Zhaolin et al. (1988) used gas-chromatography and mass spectrometry for analysis of the essential oil and the fragrant volatile oil compound from the Rosa centifolia flowers. 26 copmpounds were identified from the fragrant volatiles and 35 compounds from the essential oil. Major constituents of the fragrant volatile oil include Phenyl ethanol, Citronellol, Geraniol and Citronellyl acetate.
Book (2006) Page(s) 77.
Graph: Flower production...under Faisalabad climatic conditions. Rosa centifolia. [12 to >60 blooms per month January-December with a peak in May with >60 blooms]
Book (2006) Page(s) 123-125.
In the Rosa centifolia species an increase in the number of flowers per plant was observed with the increasing temperature, which seems a unique character in roses. The flower production of Rosa centifolia was maximum in the hottest months of the year, i.e. May, June and July...The species, Rosa centifolia performed excellently under Faisalabad climatic conditions and produced fabulous flowering throughout the year. From the results it was recorded that a single plant of rosa centifolia produced about 500 fragrant flowers/year....
...the initiation of leaves followed by an inflorescence is repeated cyclically in Rosa centifolia.....lw concentrations of GAs permit floral induction in Rosa centifolia throughout the growing season.
Article (magazine) (2005) Page(s) 973.
Recovery of concrete oil from petals of Rosa demascena was higher (0.24%) than Rosa centifolia (0.22%) on fresh weight basis. Similarly absolute oil recovered from concrete oil of Rosa demascena was higher (10.17%) and 0.03% on the petal weight basis than Rosa centifolia (9.83% and 0.02%, respectively).
Some chemical constituents of essential oil of Rosa centifolia and Rosa damascena
Rosa centifolia (%age Constituents)
Citranellyl acetate 4.09
Phenyl ethyl alcohol 56.68
Rhodinyl acetate 1.94
Rosa damascene (%age Constituents)
Citranellyl acetate 2.46
Phenyl ethyl alcohol 70.86
Rhodinyl acetate 0.42
Book (2002) Page(s) 28.
Before 1867. Rated 8.2
Book (2001) Page(s) 442-443.
Rosa x centifolia L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 491.
Rosa centifolia α vulgaris Seringe ex DC., Prodr. 2 (1825) 619; R. gallica β centifolia Regel in Acta Hort. Petrop. 5 (1878) 254.
Complex hybrid under participation of R. gallica, R. moschata, R. canina and R. damascena.
Cabbage rose, Provence rose; German Zentifolia, Mairose; French rose à cent feuilles, rose de mai; Russian roza stolistaja; Hindi patti gulab; Sanskrit devataruni; Korean pulgûnkkothyangjangmi.
Wild area probably in Caucasus, N Iran to Turkey.
In some Mediterranean countries (Morocco, France and Italy) and in India, China and recently in North Korea cultivated for its flowers. Extracts used for expensive perfumes, cosmetics and luxurious foodstuffs. Petals for preparing jam. Flowers, roots and leaves in India and southern Africa are a drug.
Rosa x centifolia is one of the progenitors of the European multipetalous garden roses.
Ref.:Gildemeister & Hoffmann 5, 1959; Hammer et al. 1987, 323; Hegi IV (2), 1923; Krüssmann 3, 1978; Watt & Breyer-Brandwijk 1962, 1457 pp.; Wealth of India 9, 1972.