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The Rose - A Colourful Inheritance
(2005)  Page(s) 231.  
 
By 1817 there were three new imports [from China]: 'Cruenta', a beautiful and tender crimson-purple rose that reached England about 1810; 'Indica Purpurea' or 'Blue Rose', which faded from reddish purple to puce; and 'Animating', described as a pinkish red with a Tea scent and with leaves and flowers like 'Old Blush'...
 
(2005)  Page(s) 231.  
 
By 1817 there were three new imports [from China]: 'Cruenta', a beautiful and tender crimson-purple rose that reached England about 1810; 'Indica Purpurea' or 'Blue Rose', which faded from reddish purple to puce; and 'Animating', described as a pinkish red with a Tea scent and with leaves and flowers like 'Old Blush'...
(2005)  Page(s) 135.  
 
A full-petalled yellow rose came to Europe through Charles de l'Ecluse, who worked in the imperial gardens in Vienna from 1573, travelled widely seeking out new plants. At a Turkish exhibition in Vienna he noticed a finely executed paper model of a garden, and his interest quickened when he saw that it contained a replica of a yellow rose. Unlike R. foetida, which he had already discovered on his travels, this flower had many petals. If there was a rose that truly matched the model, he was determined to find it.
It took de l'Ecluse some years before he finally acquired the rose of his dreams in 1601. R. hemisphaerica proved a mixed blessing, for in cool weather the buds refused to open, and in wet conditions the sulphur yellow petals would stick together, causing the flowers to ball and rot. Blooms that did succeed in opening were too heavy for the slender stalks, and the plant's overall appearance was unsightly. Moreover it was difficult to propagate and its hardiness was suspect. Nevertheless a way was found of catering for the weakness of so sensational a novelty. The answer was to grow it under glass and give it appropriate support. This succeeded so well that that for many years it bolstered the florist trade in Italy and France. It was successfully introduced in England in 1695 after several failed attempts.
When R. hemisphaerica is viewed from the side, the flower appears to be in the shape of half a sphere, which explains the reason for its name. It is not a true species, but a garden form derived from R. hemisphaerica var. rapinii, a native of Turkey, Armenia and Iran. Other names for it are R. sulphurea and Yellow Provence Rose.
 
(2005)  Page(s) 231.  
 
...Only one of the early Teas showed outstanding vigour: the semi-climber 'Indica Major', introduced from China around 1823. It bears charming silky-looking flowers made up of pink-rimmed primrose petals, and though tender it is sturdy enough to serve as an understock in warm climates. Of the sixty Tea roses introduced in this period 'Indica Major' appears to be the only survivor...
 
(2005)  Page(s) 231.  
 
By 1817 there were three new imports [from China]: 'Cruenta', a beautiful and tender crimson-purple rose that reached England about 1810; 'Indica Purpurea' or 'Blue Rose', which faded from reddish purple to puce; and 'Animating', described as a pinkish red with a Tea scent and with leaves and flowers like 'Old Blush'...
 
(2005)  Page(s) 147.  
 
Although there are fourteen other rose species native to Japan, the Japanese showed an early preference for imported plants, which were regarded more highly. These they called koshinbara meaning 'roses which flower for sixty days'. It is assumed that they were repeat-flowering pinks and reds from China. Fujiwara Teika (1162-1241) used a similar word when he made the observation in his diary: 'In December in 1213 there are still roses with red petals under the fence.'
(2005)  Page(s) 235.  
 
The reputation of the flesh pink Bourbon quickly spread. It was on sale in France in 1823, in England two years later and in 1828 it reached the United States. Progress in raising new varieties was slow for the first ten years. They were criticised because of their ‘sad colours’ and failure to open in damp weather. Success was assured after 1833, however, when Jean Desprez brought out ‘Charles Desprez’ and ‘Mme. Desprez’. The last one, in addition to its pretty, varied shades of mauve, pink and lilac, proved a fecund ancestor.
 
(2005)  
 
p140. and with ‘Oakington Ruby’ (found near Cambridge a few years later) ….

p243 As gardens became smaller, breeders were encouraged to produce dwarf forms. Miniature roses were raised from the 1920s onwards, with the help of ‘Rouletii’ from Switzerland and ‘Oakington Ruby’ from Cambridgeshire, England.
(2005)  Page(s) 297.  Includes photo(s).
 
'OPHELIA' Although William Paul's nursery is credited with introducing this Hybrid Tea ...as a seedling of 'Antoine Rivoire' in 1912, the firm believed it might have come as a mislabelled item with other plants ordered from France.
 
(2005)  Includes photo(s).
 
p134. [Plate of 'Persian Yellow' with curved prickles]

p194 ....the Hemisphaerica roses are distinguished from the yellow foetidas by their prickles, which are straight* rather than curved.
[*Plate of R. hemisphaerica with straight prickles]
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