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'Rosa indica L.' rose References
Book  (1 May 2003)  
 
Rosa chinensis Jacquin, Observ. Bot. 3: 7. 1768.
yue ji hua
Shrubs erect, 1–2 m tall. Branchlets purple-brown, terete, robust, subglabrous; prickles abundant to absent, curved, stout, flat. Leaves including petiole 5–11 cm; stipules mostly adnate to petiole, free parts auriculate, margin entire, often glandular-pubescent, apex acuminate; rachis and petiole sparsely prickly and glandular-pubescent; leaflets 3–5, rarely 7, greenish abaxially, dark green adaxially, broadly ovate or ovate-oblong, 2.5–6 × 1–3 cm, both surfaces subglabrous, adaxially often shiny, base subrounded or broadly cuneate, margin acutely serrate, apex long acuminate or acuminate. Flowers 4 or 5 and fasciculate, rarely solitary, slightly fragrant or not, 4–5 cm in diam.; pedicel 2.5–6 cm, subglabrous or glandular-pubescent; bracts 1–3, linear, glabrous, margin glandular or entire, apex acute. Hypanthium ovoid-globose or pyriform, glabrous. Sepals 5, deciduous, ovate, sometimes leaflike, abaxially glabrous, adaxially densely villous, margin entire or few pinnately lobed, rarely entire, apex caudate. Petals 5, semi-double or double, red, pink, white, or purple, obovate, base cuneate, apex emarginate. Styles free, exserted, nearly equaling stamens, pubescent. Hip red, ovoid or pyriform, 1–2 cm in diam., glabrous. Fl. Apr–Sep, fr. Jun–Nov. 2n = 21*, 28*.
Native in Guizhou, Hubei, Sichuan; also widely cultivated in China [widely cultivated elsewhere].
Book  (1 May 2003)  
 
Rosa chinensis var. chinensis
yue ji hua (yuan bian zhong)
Rosa nankinensis Loureiro; R. sinica Linnaeus.
Branches robust, often with hooked prickles. Flowers double or semi-double, several, rarely solitary. Leaflets 3–5, rarely 7, abaxially dark green. Petals red, pink or white. Sepals often with a few lobes.
Cultivated in China [widely cultivated elsewhere, of cultivated origin].
A famous Chinese ornamental plant with many widely cultivated horticultural forms
Book  (1 May 2003)  
 
Rosa chinensis var. semperflorens (Curtis) Koehne, Deut. Dendrol. 281. 1893.
zi yue ji hua
Rosa semperflorens Curtis, Bot. Mag. 8: t. 284. 1794.
Branchlets slender, with short prickles. Flowers double or semi-double, often solitary, or 2 or 3 and fasciculate. Leaflets 5–7, thinner, often tinged with purple-red. Petals deep red or deep purple. Sepals often with a few lobes. 2n = 14*.
Cultivated in China [widely cultivated elsewhere; of cultivated origin].
Book  (15 Oct 2001)  
 
p37. Malcolm M. Manners. A Brief Explanation of DNA Analysis.
....It cannot identify a historic variety, if we don't have a known specimen of the historic variety to work with. For example, there are several candidates for the "true" 'Slater's Crimson China' in commerce. We can easily determine if those candidates are closely related to each other. But, lacking the original, guaranteed "true" 'Slater's Crimson China', we can never hope to prove that any one of the extant roses is the real thing.

p93. Marijke Peterich. The Preservation of Old Garden Roses in Bermuda.
In the logo is the rose 'Slater's Crimson China' as we now know, then only known by its local name "Belfield". It was designed by Lady Conyers in 1955 and appears on our stationary, our membership pin, etc. Mr. Richard Thomson, the well-known rosarian, came to Bermuda in 1953 to visit Mrs. Laura Pattisson. She showed him all the roses she knew and also this little red rose growing against a wall of a slave cottage, named Belfield, in Somerset. He was very excited and took samples home for scientific verification. when he returned in July 1956 for a lecture he confirmed that this little red rose was indeed 'Slater's Crimson China'.
Book  (2001)  Page(s) 449.  
 
Rosa chinensis Jacq., Observ. bot. 3 (1768) 7, t.55.
Rosa sinica L., Syst Voy. ed. 13(1774) 394, Forma calyce monstr.; R. indica sensu Lour., Fl. cochinch. (1790) 323, non L. (1753); R. nankinensis Lour., l.c.323; R. semperflorens beta Lawr., Roses (1799) t.26; R. bengalensis beta chinensis Pers. Syn. Pl.2 (1806) 50; R. indica vulgaris Thory in Redouté, Roses 1 (1817) 51; R. indica var. bengalensis K. Koch, Hort. dendrol. (1853) 122.
China rose, Bengal rose; German Chinesische Rose; Chinese (tsiao mui hoa); kat gulab, kanta (Bengal); Korean wõlkyéhwa.
China, precise wild area unknown.
In many forms for a long time in cultivation as ornamental shrub in many countries of the world. In India cultivated for its fruits. They are used also as a drug.
Ref.: Ghora & Panigrahi 1995, 481 pp.; Hegi IV (2), 1923; Komarov 10, 1941, Wealth of India 9, 1972.
Article (magazine)  (Dec 2000)  Page(s) 149.  
 
R. chinensis HCh -- Correct horticultural classification is Sp (Species).
Book  (Dec 2000)  Page(s) 82.  
 
Slater's Crimson China
China [the country] [with Slater] 1792
Article (magazine)  (Oct 2000)  Page(s) 35.  
 
R. chinensis Correct horticultural classification is Species.
Book  (2000)  Page(s) 50.  
 
Rosa chinensis/Rosier du Bengale/Rosier de Chine/’Bengal Rose’/’China Rose’/Rosa chinensis indica = Disparu des cultures durant de longues années, ce rosier est de nouveau disponible… description… Chine, vers 1759.
Article (magazine)  (Jun 1999)  Page(s) 103.  Includes photo(s).
 
Rosa indica One of the roses Josephine grew at Malmaison and that is still available today...Until its introduction from China and northern India, Western gardens never had a rose capable of blooming from month to month. R. indica caught the eye of Joséphine's gardeners, who began to cultivate new hybrids... the China rose... Rediscovered in Bermuda in the 1950s, R. indica is now called 'Belfield', after the estate where it was found...
[Image is Redoute's version]
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