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'Rosa carolina L.' rose References
Article (magazine)  (2006)  Page(s) 412.  
In the east, two groups of diploids were found: one consists of R. blanda and R. woodsii and the other of R. foliolosa, R. nitida, and R. palustris. Only eastern diploids are involved in the origins of the polyploids. Rosa arkansana is derived from the blanda–woodsii group, R. virginiana originated from the foliolosa–nitida–palustris group, and R. carolina is derived from a hybrid between the two diploid groups. The distinct origins of these polyploid taxa support the hypothesis that the three polyploids are separate species.....
....the tetraploid taxa R. arkansana Porter, R. carolina L., and R. virginiana Mill. are characterized by extensive continuous morphological variation that blurs their limits with each other and with their putative diploid ancestors in the R. carolina complex.
....Rosa carolina is different from R. arkansana in that all except two individuals investigated have alleles from both the blanda–woodsii and the foliolosa–nitida–palustris diploid groups. Given the wide geographic distribution of the individuals sampled, we can affirm that R. carolina is an allopolyploid with one parent from the blanda–woodsii diploid group and the other from the foliolosa–nitida–palustris group. The deviation from a 1:1 ratio of parental alleles expected for allopolyploids observed in some individuals is probably the result of either segregation of homologous chromosomes or introgression.
Book  (2002)  Page(s) 84.  
R. carolina Species, medium pink. Rated 8.1
Book  (2002)  
Rosa carolina. Carolina or Pasture Rose.
Zones: 4-9; sun, part sun
Soil: Moist to dry
Native to: Upland woods, dunes, prairies, and fencerows; Maine to Minnesota south to Texas and Florida
Size: Height 2-3 feet, width 3-4 feet
Color: Light to dark pink; blooms in summer
Carolina rose is similar in many respects to Virginia rose (R. virginiana), but its leaflets are a bit narrower, glossy, dark green and pointed, and its stems are set with both back-curved infrastipular thorns just below the leaf base and bristly spines along the internodes. flowers are held up singly or in pairs from the new growth, and like many other rose blooms, often open darker and fade over two to three days to light pink. The petioles, young stems, and shining hips are deep crimson. is not too expansive n the garden and the leaves and stiff stems are very attractive. In the wild it spreads to form loose, patchy colonies, but is much thicker and mounded in cultivation. It is one of the best species for the Southeast, and is fairly cold-hardy, though it may experience some dieback in Zone 4.
Article (magazine)  (2001)  Page(s) 393.  
R. carolina L. Ploidy 2x
Pollen fertility 86.3%
Selfed Fruit set 0%
Book  (2000)  Page(s) 50.  Includes photo(s).
Rosa carolina/’Caroline Rose’/’Pasture Rose’ = Trapu ou de taille moyenne, cet arbuste touffu produit à foison des drageons bardés d’aiguillons, mais le bois plus âgé est à peine épineux… feuillage dense, vert foncé, légèrement luisant, chaque feuille composée de 5 folioles elliptiques et dentées… fleurs rose pur, solitaires, suivies de fruits globuleux rouge vif… bons arbustes compacts à planter en groupe ou en haie basse et ne craignant pas les sols pauvres. Amérique du Nord, 1826.
Book  (Feb 1999)  Page(s) 10-11.  Includes photo(s).
Pasture Rose One of Taylor's 50 Best Roses. Description, vital statistics, and care advice... native to the eastern United States...
Book  (Nov 1998)  Page(s) 11.  
R. carolina Relatively thornless. Height and width: 3 ft. Flowers: single, soft pink, fragrant...
Book  (1994)  Page(s) 12.  
Carolinae... The roses from Carolina... the only ones which enjoy growing in wet ground and in mild shade... distinct from other roses in that the autumn leaves can be very richly coloured in shades of scarlet, orange and gold.
Book  (Sep 1993)  Page(s) 20.  
(R. carolina; R. humilis; R. parviflora; 'Pasture Rose') One of the common Wild Roses of the eastern US and Canada. Once-blooming.
Book  (Aug 1990)  Page(s) 42-44.  Includes photo(s).
Rosa carolina Description... introduced 1826... pink flowers... Foliage orange and yellow in the fall... This short bush is native to the east coast of North America, ranging from Nova Scotia to Texas... When left on its own or in the wild, it grows about three feet high; but when it is carefully tended, as in the Cranford Rose Garden, it can reach up to six feet...
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