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Garden and Forest (13 Feb 1889)  
 
Rosa humilis,* var. triloba. ROSA HUMILIS, Marshall, Arbust. Amer., 136. R. lucida of Gray's Manual, Wood. etc., in part.
This pretty freak of our common low Wild Rose was detected by Miss Jennie K Whitesides, of Harmonsburg, Pennsylvania. in 1881, growing upon a sandy bank near that place, whence it was transferred to her garden. Since June, 1886, it has been in cultivation at the Botanic Garden at Cambridge, where it has for three years perpetuated the abnormal character of its petals. Aside from the interest which attaches to it on this account, the figure is also of value as illustrating very clearly the characters which distinguish Rosa humilis from other eastern species. The slender habit, the open foliation, the very slender, straight spines, the narrow stipules, and the nearly constant and often free toothing of the outer sepals, are characteristic of this species. In this form it is found in the dry, sandy or rocky localities which it prefers, from New England to the Mississippi and southward to the Gulf States. As in all the species of the group, the pedicels, hip and calyx-lobes are more or less glandular-hispid. And like every other Rose, it is subject to variation. When growing in wetter localities it may be somewhat stouter in habit, the spines thicker at base, the stipules more foliaceous, and, ot course, there may be found anywhere specimens or young shoots with enough of scattered prickles. But it never takes on the taller, stout and bushy growth, and the broadbased, recurved spines of the northern R. lucida, nor the peculiar foliage and densely prickly covering throughout of the R. nitida of New England swamps. S. W. [Rosa humilis, next to Rosa Caroliniana, is the most common Rose in the elevated mountain region of Virginia, eastern Tennessee and Carolina. Here, unlike our other Roses, which frequent open situations, it is found growing only in the shade of the forest, generally on steep slopes, and usually in very rich soil. As it appears growing in such situations it is one of the most distinct of all the American Roses, with its very slender stems, sparse, open foliage, and few long, slender spines. C. S. S.]

Wild- und Gartenrosen (1976)  Page(s) 103.  
 
R. carolina 'Triloba' (Wats.) Rehd. (R. humilis triloba Wats.) - Light pink blooms, petals three-lobed.

Wild- und Gartenrosen (1976)  Page(s) 103.  
 
R. carolina 'Plena' (Marsh.) Doris Lynes (R. pensylvanica Marsh.) - Double blooms.

Wild- und Gartenrosen (1976)  Page(s) 103.  
 
R. carolina 'Grandiflora' (Baker) Rehd. (R. humilis var. grandiflora Baker, R. obovata Raf., R. lindlayi Spreng., R. laxa Lindl. non Retz., R. virginiana var. grandiflora Bean) - Blooms 5 cm in diameter, light pink, leaflets broader than with R. carolina, cultivated since 1870.

Wild- und Gartenrosen (1976)  Page(s) 103.  
 
R. carolina 'Glandulosa' (Crép.) Farw. (R. parviflora glandulosa Crép., R. mexicana Wats. non Willd., R. serrulata Raf.) - with glandular leaflets, cultivated since 1902.

Wild- und Gartenrosen (1976)  Page(s) 103.  
 
R. carolina 'Alba' Rehd. (R. virginiana alba Willm., R. lyonii alba Rehd.) - with white blooms, cultivated since 1880.

Wild- und Gartenrosen (1976)  Page(s) 103.  
 
R. carolina L....Var. villosa (Best) Rehd. (R. lyonii Pursh., R. humilis var. villosa Best, R. lucida V. T. et Gr., R. pusilla Raf., R. virginiana var. vulgaris (Crép.) Farw., R. carolina var. lyonii Palmer et Steyerm.).
In culture since 1887. The leaflets are downy beneath; blooms solitary or in 2 to 4 together.

Wild- und Gartenrosen (1976)  Page(s) 102-103.  
 
R. carolina L.
- Sp. plant. (1753), 492.
(R. humilis Mars., R. pensylvanica Wangenh., R. parviflora Ehrh., R. virginiana var. humilis C. K. Schneid., R. pratensis Rafinesque)
Büsche: 1 m, seltener 1,5 m hoch, mit aufrechten verästelten Trieben. Junge Triebe borstig.
Blätter: 5 (7) Fiederblättchen, elliptisch bis lanzettlich, 1 bis 3 cm lang, spitz-gesägt, Oberseite kahl, fast glänzend, hellgrün. Unterseite blaulich-grün, gewöhnlich kahl.
Blüten: meistens einzelständig, fast 5 cm breit; rosa; Kelchblätter lanzettlich, zugespitzt, verbreitert, drüsig-behaart, fallen ab; Blütenstiele drüsig-borstig. Blütezeut Juli/August.
Früchte: flach, abgerundet, 8 mm Durchmesser, borstig.
Bekannt seit 1826. Nach Krüssmann bezeichnet man diese Wildrose in Deutschland häufig fälschlicherweise als R. virginiana.
Verbreitungsgebiet: Nordamerika (von New Brunswick bis Florida und nach Westen bis Texas und Wisconsin).
Zierstrauch.
In Kultur sind einige Sorten und Hybriden....

Translation:
Bushes: 1 m, more seldon 1,5 m tall, with upright branched canes. Young canes are bristly.
Foliage: 5(7) leaflets, elliptical to lanceolate, 1 to 3 cm long, acuute-serrate, glabrous above, almost glossy, glaucous below, usually glabrous.
Blooms: mosrtly solitary, almost 5 cm across, pink; sepals lanceolate, acuminate, dilated, glandular-hirsute. Blooming time July/August.
Fruit: flat, rounded, 8 mm in diameter, bristly.
Known since 1826. According to Krüssmann this wild rose is often called erroneously R. virginiana in Germany.
Area of distribution: North America (from New Brunswick to Florida and in the West to Texas and Wisconsin).
Decorative shrub.
There are several sorts and hybrids in cultivation...

Wild- und Gartenrosen (1976)  Page(s) 102.  
 
R. virginiana Mill....Hybrids: ...R. x rapa Bosc. (R. virginiana plena hort. ex Rehd., R. lucida plena hort. ex Rehd.) = R. virginiana x unknown diploid Rose. Blooms double, light pink, triploid.

Wild- und Gartenrosen (1976)  Page(s) 102.  
 
R. virginiana Mill.
- Gard. Dict. ed. VIII (1768), no. 10
(R. lucida Ehrh., R. lucida alba hort., R. humilis lucida Best., R. pensylvanica Andrews non Wangenheim et non Michx.)
Büsche: ungefähr 1,5 m hoch, mit aufrechten rötlich-zimtfarbenen Trieben; Stacheln hakenförmig gebogen, an jungen zweigen häufig borstenähnlich.
Blätter: 7 bis 9 Blättchen, glänzend grün, von elliptisch bis umgehrt eiförmig, 2 bis 6 cm lang, an den Rändern spitz gesägt, Unterseite an den Adern eingesenkt.
Blüten: einzelständig oder einige zusammen, hellrosa. Blütezeit Juni/Juli.
Früchte: flach abgerundet, 1,5 cm breit, glatt, rot, Fruchtstiel drüsig-borstig.
Verbreitungsgebiet: Nordamerika (von Süd-Quebec bis Georgia und im Westen bis Missouri).
Eine der ersten amerikanischen Wildrosen, die in Europa kultiviert wurden (zuerst 172^4 in England) und als Zierstrauch weite Verbreitung fand.

Translation:
Bushes: about 1,5 m tall, with upright reddish cinnamon-coloured canes; prickles curved in hook-shape, often bristle-like on young branches.
Foliage: 7 to 9 leaflets, glossy green, elliptical to obovate, 2 to 6 cm long, acutely serrated on the edges, sunk beneath along the veins.
Blooms: solitary or several together, light pink. Blooming period June/July.
Fruit: flat rounded, 1,5 cm across, smooth, red. Fruit stalk glandular-bristly.
Area of distribution: Northern America (from southern Quebec to Georgia and in the West until Missouri).
One of the first american wild roses which was cultivated in Europe (first in England in 1724) and was distributed widely as a decorative shrub.
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