HelpMeFind Roses, Clematis and Peonies
Roses, Clematis and Peonies
and everything gardening related.
Site ChangesPhotosPlant IntroductionsReviews & CommentsMember JournalsPlantsPlant References 
Recent plant reference listings added to HelpMeFind

The Complete Book of Roses (Krüssmann 1981) (1981)  Page(s) 277.  
 
R. californica 'Plena'. Shrub to 2 m./6.6 ft. high; branches arching, flowers loosely double, warm rose to bright crimson, fragrant, June-July. GSR 4. (= R. 'Theano' Geschwind). 1894.

The Complete Book of Roses (Krüssmann 1981) (1981)  Page(s) 277.  
 
R. californica 'Plena'. Shrub to 2 m./6.6 ft. high; branches arching, flowers loosely double, warm rose to bright crimson, fragrant, June-July. GSR 4. (= R. 'Theano' Geschwind). 1894.

The Complete Book of Roses (Krüssmann 1981) (1981)  Page(s) 277.  
 
R. californica...'Nana'. Growth dwarf; flowers pink, single. 1914.

The Complete Book of Roses (Krüssmann 1981) (1981)  Page(s) 277.  
 
R. californica Cham. & Schlechtend. Shrub to 3 m./10 ft. high, stems with flat, curved prickles, young branches sometimes bristly; flowering branches mostly prickly; leaflets 5-7, broadly elliptic, 1-3 cm./0.4-1.2 in. long, simply serrate (not glandular), dull green and adpressed hairy above, villous beneath; flowers in corymbs, with stipules, dark rose, 4 cm./1.6 in. across, June-August; sepals outside villous, pedicels villous or bald; fruits small, globose, with distinct neck. 1-1.5 cm./0.4-0.6 in. thick. 2n = 14. AFP 2509. California. 1571.

Flora of North America, Vol.9 (2019)  
 
Rosa palustris Marshall, Arbust. Amer. 135. 1785.
Swamp rose, rosier palustre
Rosa floridana Rydberg; R. gemella Willdenow; R. lancifolia Small; R. obtusiuscula Rydberg; R. palustris var. dasistema (Rafinesque) E. J. Palmer & Steyermark
Shrubs, forming thickets. Stems erect, 10–25(–30) dm, sparsely branched; bark reddish brown, glabrous; infrastipular prickles paired, curved, rarely erect, stout, 3.5–8 × 2–5(–10) mm, ˂base glabrous˃, internodal prickles and aciculi rare, sometimes absent. Leaves 8–11 cm; stipules ˂narrow˃, 10–22(–35) × 2.5–4 mm, auricles erect, rarely flared, 2.5–4.5(–8) mm, margins serrulate, eglandular or stipitate-glandular, surfaces glabrous, eglandular; petiole and rachis usually with pricklets, puberulent to pubescent, sometimes glabrous, eglandular or sparsely stipitate-glandular; leaflets 5–7, terminal: petiolule 5–10 mm, blade ovate-lanceolate, rarely broadly lanceolate or narrowly elliptic, 23–45 × 10–18 mm, membranous, base cuneate, margins 1–2-serrulate, ˂eglandular˃, teeth 20–30 per side, acute to ± obtuse, eglandular, apex acute to subacute, abaxial surfaces pale green, glabrous or pubescent, eglandular, adaxial green, dull, glabrous. Inflorescences corymbs, (1 or)2–10(–40)-flowered. Pedicels erect, slender, 6–15 mm, glabrous, densely stipitate-glandular; bracts 2, lanceolate, 6–15 × 3–4 mm, ˂margins and central veins pubescent˃, eglandular, surfaces pubescent, eglandular. Flowers 2.5–5 cm diam.; hypanthium cupulate, 2–4 × 2–4 mm, glabrous, sparsely to densely stipitate-glandular, neck absent or 1–3 mm; sepals spreading to reflexed, rarely erect, lanceolate to narrowly ovate-lanceolate, 15–30(–40) × 2–3.5 mm, tip 2.5–3.5 × 0.5–1 mm, margins entire, rarely pinnate, abaxial surfaces glabrous, densely, sometimes sparsely, stipitate-glandular; petals single, pink to deep pink, 14–28 × 13–28 mm; ˂stamens 200˃; carpels 24–50, styles exsert 0.5–1 m beyond stylar orifice (1.5 mm diam.) of hypanthial disc (3.5–4.5 mm diam.). Hips deep red, usually globose to subglobose, rarely elongate, 7–11 × 7–11 mm, fleshy, glabrous, sparsely or densely stipitate-glandular, neck absent or 3 × 1 mm; sepals deciduous, spreading. Achenes basal, 26, tan, 3 × 1.5–2 mm. 2n = 14.
Flowering (Jun–)Jul(–Aug). Swampy woods and pastures, marshes, edges of ponds, springs, lakes, backwaters, sloughs, streams, ditches; 0–700 m; N.B., N.S., Ont., Que.; Ala., Ark., Conn., Del., D.C., Fla., Ga., Ill., Ind., Iowa, Ky., Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., Miss., Mo., N.H., N.J., N.Y., N.C., Ohio, Pa., R.I., S.C., Tenn., Vt., Va., W.Va., Wis.; introduced in Europe.
The single 1952 collection of Rosa palustris from Lake of Three Fires State Park (ISC), Taylor County, southwestern Iowa, is about 430 km northwest of the nearest known collection of the species, in Missouri. The species was probably introduced. It has the most serrulate leaflet margins of all roses in North America; the stems usually have short, stout, curved infrastipular prickles, rarely without armature.
Rosa ×palustriformis (Rydberg) Voss (R. carolina var. aculeata Schuette, R. michiganensis Erlanson, R. schuetteana Erlanson) refers to putative hybrids between R. blanda × R. palustris from Maine, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin. Rosa schuetteana is morphologically intermediate between the parental species; R. ×palustriformis is more similar to R. palustris. Rosa blanda and R. palustris differ by: branch armature (R. blanda unarmed or with sparse prickles or aciculi, R. palustris with stout, curved infrastipular prickles or unarmed); length of each auricle (R. blanda average 4.8 mm, R. palustris average 2.6 mm); petioles and rachises with pricklets (R. blanda rare, R. palustris common); leaflet serrations (R. blanda serrate, acute, teeth 10–26 per blade side, R. palustris serrulate, slightly blunt, teeth 20–30 per blade side); pedicels stipitate-glandular (R. blanda eglandular, R. palustris almost always); hypanthia stipitate-glandular (R. blanda eglandular, R. palustris almost always); inflorescences corymbs (R. blanda rare, R. palustris common).
Root decoctions of Rosa palustris were drunk by Cherokee to treat diarrhea (W. H. Lewis and M. P. F. Elvin-Lewis 2003). In Maine, R. palustris hips, including their achenes, are gathered about February, flattened, dried, and ground into flour for use with ground wheat to make leavened bread. The bread has a red color and a fine taste reminiscent of tomatoes (Arthur Haines, pers. comm.).

Flora of North America, Vol.9 (2019)  
 
Rosa carolina Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 492. 1753.
Carolina or pasture rose, rosier de Caroline
Shrubs or subshrubs, forming scattered populations. Stems spreading and weak, sometimes erect, slender, 3–10(–13) dm, openly branched; bark dull reddish brown, glabrous; infrastipular prickles usually paired, erect, sometimes declined, rarely curved, flat, subulate, (2–)3–9 × 1.5–3 mm, ˂base glabrous˃, internodal prickles sparsely or densely mixed with aciculi, stipitate glands and smaller internodal prickles. Leaves 5–10(–16) cm; stipules 10–18(–23) × 2–3 mm, auricles flared, 2–4 mm, margins entire or subserrate, eglandular or finely stipitate-glandular, surfaces glabrous, rarely puberulent, eglandular; petiole and rachis sometimes with pricklets ˂3 mm˃, aciculi few, glabrous, rarely pubescent, rarely stipitate-glandular; leaflets (3–)5–7(–9), terminal: petiolule 4–11 mm, blade ovate, elliptic, or lanceolate, 18–50 × 9–28 mm, membranous, base cuneate, margins 1–2+-serrate, teeth 8–14(–18) per side, eglandular or gland-tipped, apex acute to acuminate, rarely obtuse, abaxial surfaces pale green, glabrous, rarely pubescent, eglandular or glandular, adaxial usually green, dull, rarely slightly lustrous, glabrous. Inflorescences corymbs, 1–3(–6)-flowered. Pedicels erect, slender, 5–19 mm, glabrous, sparsely to ± densely stipitate-glandular, sometimes eglandular; bracts 2, lanceolate, 10–17 × 2–4 mm, margins entire, usually eglandular, surfaces with sparse hairs, stipitate-glandular. Flowers 3–5.5 cm diam.; hypanthium globose or ovoid, 4–6(–8) × 3.5–5(–8) mm, glabrous, ± densely to sparsely stipitate-glandular, sometimes eglandular, neck (0–)0.5–1 × 2 mm; sepals reflexed, sometimes spreading, lanceolate, 10–22 × 2–3 mm, tip 2–10 × 0.5–1 mm, margins pinnatifid or entire, abaxial surfaces rarely puberulent, stipitate-glandular, rarely eglandular; petals single, pink, 15–24 × 13–19 mm; ˂stamens 105˃; carpels 32–46, styles exsert 1 mm beyond stylar orifice (1.5–2 mm diam.) of hypanthial disc (4–5 mm diam.). Hips red or orange-red, globose or depressed-globose, rarely ellipsoid, 7–14 × 6–15 mm, fleshy, glabrous, densely to sparsely stipitate-glandular, sometimes eglandular, neck 0–0.5 × 5–6 mm; sepals early deciduous, spreading to reflexed. Achenes basal, 2–6(–10), tan, 4–5 × 2.5–3 mm.
Subspecies 3 (2 in the flora): North America, ne Mexico.
Rosa carolina is a polymorphic allotetraploid derived from diploids found in eastern North America (S. Joly et al. 2006). Two nothospecies representing presumptive secondary hybridization and introgression are R. ×medioccidentis W. H. Lewis (R. arkansana × R. carolina) in Iowa, eastern Kansas, and western Missouri, and R. ×novae-angliae W. H. Lewis (R. carolina × R. virginiana) of New England, infrequently south to the District of Columbia, nearby Virginia, and New Jersey (W. H. Lewis 2008).
The Menominee of Wisconsin once ate hips of Rosa carolina to treat gastrointestinal problems (H. I. Smith 1923).
Subspecies mexicoensis W. H. Lewis is found in the Sierra Madre Oriental of northeastern Mexico (Coahuila, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas).
SELECTED REFERENCE Lewis, W. H. 2008. Rosa carolina (Rosaceae) subspecies and hybrids in eastern and midwestern United States, Canada, and Mexico. Novon 18: 192–198.

Flora of North America, Vol.9 (2019)  
 
Rosa virginiana Miller, Gard. Dict. ed. 8. Rosa no. 10. 1768.
(name conserved)
Virginia rose, rosier de Virginie
Rosa lucida Ehrhart; R. lucida var. lamprophylla (Rehder) P. V. Heath; R. nanella Rydberg
Shrubs, forming dense thickets and hedge clusters. Stems erect to ascending, (2–)10–30 dm, densely branched; bark red to purplish red, glabrous; infrastipular prickles paired or single, usually curved, sometimes erect, or declined, appressed, stout, 6–10 × 4–10 mm, ˂base glabrous˃, internodal prickles or aciculi rare, smaller, sometimes absent. Leaves 5–8(–11) cm; stipules 14–25 × 4–9 mm, auricles flared, 3–5 mm, margins undulate, irregularly glandular-serrate, surfaces glabrous, eglandular; petiole and rachis sometimes with pricklets and aciculi, glabrous, puberulent, or sparsely pubescent, stipitate-glandular; leaflets 5–7(–9), terminal: petiolule 6–14 mm, blade narrowly elliptic to ovate, 17–32 × 6–16 mm, membranous, base cuneate, margins 1–2-serrate, teeth 10–18(–23) per side, gland-tipped or eglandular, apex acute, sometimes obtuse, abaxial surfaces pale green, glabrous or pubescent, eglandular, adaxial deep green, turning purplish red in fall, lustrous, glabrous. Inflorescences corymbs, 1–6(–15)-flowered. Pedicels erect, slender to stout, 7–14(–25) mm, glabrous, sparsely to densely stipitate-glandular; bracts 2, broadly lanceolate, 16–25 × 4–6 mm, margins entire, sometimes serrate, gland-tipped, surfaces glabrous with few hairs, eglandular. Flowers 4.3–5.5 cm diam.; hypanthium subglobose or depressed-globose, sometimes globose, 3.5–5.5 × 5.5–6.5 mm, glabrous, stipitate-glandular, neck absent; sepals spreading or reflexed, lanceolate, 20–40 × 2.5–4 mm, tip 6–12 × 0.5–2 mm, margins usually pinnatifid, rarely entire, inner 2 usually entire, abaxial surfaces glabrous, densely stipitate- or setose-glandular; petals single, pink to deep rose, rarely white, 22–26 × 25–30 mm; ˂stamens 140˃; carpels 26–40(–65), styles exsert 1–2.5 mm beyond stylar orifice (1.5–3 mm diam.) of hypanthial disc (3–5 mm diam.). Hips orange-red to red or red-black, globose to depressed-globose, 8–12 × 9–13 mm, fleshy, glabrous, stipitate-glandular, neck absent; sepals deciduous, erect. Achenes mostly basal, fewer basiparietal, 8–14, tan, 3–4 × 1.5–3.5 mm. 2n = 28.
Flowering Jun–early Aug. Grasslands, woods, cliffs, maritime heathlands and grasslands, ditches, old fields, edges of wet spruce woods, rocky ledges, damp thickets, swamps, streams, shores; 0–200 m; St. Pierre and Miquelon; N.B., Nfld. and Labr. (Nfld.), N.S., Ont., P.E.I., Que.; Conn., Del., D.C., Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., N.H., N.J., N.Y., Pa., R.I., Va.; introduced in Europe (Austria, France, Great Britain).
Rosa virginiana is primarily coastal from Newfoundland to New Jersey. Distribution extends inland along estuaries and streams for relatively short distances or, rarely, outlying populations as in central New York (glacial lakes of Green Lakes State Park). Some collections from the District of Columbia and adjacent Virginia are R. carolina × R. virginiana, indicating that at one time, the hybrid and both parents existed in the region.
Disjunct introductions of Rosa virginiana are found along railroads, highways, and ports. The species is introduced in Ontario, eastern Michigan, and Virginia.
Rosa virginiana Miller was conserved over R. virginiana Herrmann in 2011 (W. H. Lewis 2008b).
Shrubs of Rosa virginiana form thickets and hedge clusters having erect, stout stems that densely branch, and in Newfoundland reach to six feet tall. These are armed with stout and relatively long infrastipular prickles, erect or curved and broad-based. Leaflets are lustrous adaxially, stipule widths are 4–9 mm, and sepal lengths are 20–40 mm; these traits differentiate R. virginiana from the closely allied R. carolina.
The majority of plants determined as Rosa virginiana from the Allegheny and Appalachian mountains (for example, in West Virginia) and from the Midwest (for example, Indiana) are R. carolina subsp. subserrulata. In the eastern United States, putative hybrids and their introgressants with R. carolina subsp. carolina occur from Massachusetts to New Jersey and, rarely, south or north of these states. These are the nothospecies R. × novae-angliae W. H. Lewis.

The Complete Book of Roses (Krüssmann 1981) (1981)  Page(s) 276-277.  
 
R. pinetorum Heller. Shrub 0.5-1 m./1.7-3.3 ft. high, stems slender, upright, with straight, teret prickles, shoots often bristly; stipules pilose and glandularbeneath, rachis pilose and glandular; leaflets 5-7, broadly elliptic, 1-3 cm./0.4-1.2 in. long, pilose and glandular beneath, densely serrate, teeth gland-tipped, pedicels bald; flowers 4 cm./1.6 in. across, deep rose, petals obovate, May-July; fruit 12 mm./0.5 in. thick. AFP 2504. California; open woodland. May not be in cultivation now.

The Complete Book of Roses (Krüssmann 1981) (1981)  Page(s) 276.  Includes photo(s).
 
R. ultramontana (S. Wats.) Heller. Shrub 0.6-1.5m./2-5 ft. high, branches with slender, mostly straight prickles or nearly unatmed; leaflets 5-7, elliptic, bald above, slightly puberulent and somewhat glandular beneath; flowers mostly 3-10 together, pink, 5 cm./2 in. across, June-July; sepals lanceolate, not glandular; petals obvordate; fruits globose, red, small, smooth. 2n = 14. AFP 2510; HPN 3:172. (= R. californica var. ultramontana Wats.) N. America, Brit. Col. to California and Nevada. 1888.

The Complete Book of Roses (Krüssmann 1981) (1981)  Page(s) 276.  
 
R. macounii Greene. Related to R. oodsii, but stems with straight prickles and bristly when young; leaflets obovate, glabrous and puberulent beneath; flowers small, blush; fruits depressed globose. 2n = 14, 21. AFP 2513. (= R. grosseserrata E. Nelson; R. subnuda Lunell). W. N. America. Before 1826.
© 2018 HelpMeFind.com