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'Memorial Rose' References
Book  (Nov 1994)  Page(s) 209, 220, 226.  
Page 209: Rosa wichuraiana is a most valuable plant for many purposes, for ground-cover on banks and borders, or as a dense rambler, and it does not flower until summer is well advanced... Rosa luciae is closely related, or synonymous [on Page 236, Thomas states: botanically, R. luciae and R. wichuraiana are synonymous...]
Pages 219-220: R. wichuraiana Rosa luciae of some authors, also Rosa luciae var. wichuraiana... introduced in 1891 from Japan, but is also found wild in Korea, Formosa, and eastern China... It lies prostrate on the ground, which it covers with trailing stems, rooting as they grow, and bears numerous small, shining, dark green leaves... These make a splendid ground-cover and background to the clusters of flowers, which are small, single, white with rich yellow stamens... [they] do not appear until late summer, usually in August... one of the parents of the new tetraploid species R. kordesii
Page 226: its glossy leaves have contributed to the foliage of most of its descendants; its late-summer-flowering propensity has also had some effect, and the true Wichuraiana ramblers do not usually flower until the Multiflora varieties are over
Book  (Nov 1994)  Page(s) 219.  
wichuraiana. Rosa luciae of some authors, also R. luciae var. wichuraiana. According to the latest taxonomic ruling, if one considers the two species as synonymous the name luciae takes priority; but because wichuraiana is so well known, it will be simplest to continue using it in the following pages. This trailing evergreen rose has had great influence on rose-breeding during this century but as a species it has remained in obscurity, usually being found only in botanic gardens in this country. It was introduced in 1891 from Japan, but is also found wild in Korea, Formosa, and eastern China. Known as the 'Memorial Rose' in the United States, owing to its use in cemeteries.
It lies prostrate on the ground, which it covers with trailing stems, rooting as they grow, and bears numerous small, shining, dark green leaves, with 7 to 9 blunt-ended leaflets. These make a splendid ground-cover and background to the clusters of flowers, which are small, single, white with rich yellow stamens, borne in small pyramid-shaped clusters, very sweetly scented, and do not appear until late summer, usually in August. The flower branches bear 3-lobed leaves and numerous bracts. Tiny heps follow. It can of course be trained upright on supports, and its few hooked prickles help it to scramble through bushes and trees up to 15 feet or so, after which, if left to itself, it will form cascades of trailing shoots. (Plate 128; Drawing 17.)
Book  (Mar 1994)  Page(s) 90,91.  Includes photo(s).
Page 90: Rosa wichuraiana Description, vital statistics and tips
Page 91: [Photo]
Book  (1994)  Page(s) 66,67.  Includes photo(s).
Page 66: [PHOTO]
Page 67: Rosa wichuraiana Discovered in 1861... Introduced in to the United States in 1888... Rosa wichuraiana, a creeping wild rose native to coastal regions of Japan, eastern China, and Korea, was discovered in 1861 by Dr. Max Ernst Wichura, the German botanist for whom it was named... it needs a sunny climate to fulfil its potential... [hardy enough as a groundcover but] once its canes are lifted off the ground, they require protection in cold weather or they will die back.
Book  (1994)  Page(s) 5.  
Crosses readily with other varieties. The first successful wichuraiana hybrids were produced in the late 1890s in Rhode Island by Michael H. Horvath. [Refer to Stephen Scanniello's book for more information.]
Book  (1994)  Page(s) 4.  
[One of the 65 climbing roses Stephen Scanniello describes in detail in his book and that grows in the Cranford Rose Garden at the Brooklyn Botanic Garden. There are several pages devoted to this rose, including its history, cultivation, and a photograph. Here are some highlights, but please refer to the book for more details.]
R. multiflora and R. wichuraiana were the two most influential species roses to play a role in the development of climbers... Introduced into America [from Japan] through the Arnold Arboretum in 1888… vigorous… hardy… dark, glistening foliage, fragrant flowers, and long flexible canes that are easy to train.
Book  (May 1992)  Page(s) 6, 24, 77, 313.  Includes photo(s).
Pge 6: Photographed at Mannington Hall. R. wichuraiana whe used as a seed parent by breeders at the turn of [the 20th] century, yielded some of our best-loved ramblers...
Page 24: More recently R. wichuraiana has also become the foundation of modern procumbent varieties...
Page 77: Photographed at Mannington Hall.
Page 313: R. wichuraiana China 1860. An almost evergreen species, making a dense, procumbent shrub or short climber. Foliage dark green and glossy... Flowers single, white... small oval dark red hips... Ideal as a ground cover plant...
Book  (1988)  Page(s) 34-35.  Includes photo(s).
Rosa wichuraiana Crépin. A creeping rose, sending out long, floppy branches to 3 m or more, smooth green and with curved prickles. Leaflets 5-9, shining green, broadly ovate to almost round, up to 2.5 cm long, glabrous except for the midrib beneath. Stipules ciliate. Flowers 2.5-4 cm across, in loose corymbs, opening in succession; pedicels glabrous. Hips globose, orange red. Native of Japan, Korea and China, mainly on the coast, where it grows on dunes and rocks, the long shoots creeping down the beach, flowering from June to July. In cultivation this species flowers as late as August, and is useful, though not showy, for growing on a steep bank.
Book  (1981)  Page(s) 94.  
It must be disturbing for the reader to learn that varieties were formerly ascribed to R. wichuraiana, come, in part, from another similar species, R. luciae. G. S. Thomas described this in detail in 1965, but apparently he has been ignored, so this position must now be explained....
Rosa wichuraiana Crépin (1886) = R. luciae wichuraiana Koidz. (1913). Discovered 1861 by Dr. Max Wichura; exported from Japan in 1817 [?]. Prostrate growth; evergreen, leaves about 7.6 cm/3 in. long, rounded or ovoid and robust, terminal leaves similar in size; flowers about 3.8 cm/1.5 in. across, June-July. Indigenous to Japan, Korea, Taiwan, and Eastern China. Very hardy...
If the two species are compared, the correct botanical description of R. luciae must be given first priority. Yet this has not been the case even though the Americans regard the two species as one....

1861 Dr. Max Ernst Wichura sent R. wichuraiana from Japan to Germany, but the plants died.
1880 He sent a second batch of plants to the Botanic Gardens in Munich and Brussels; Crépin saw them in Brussels and named them after Dr. Wichura.
1883 Horvath began to cross them, using 'Cramoisi Supérieur' and 'Pâquerette' as pollen parents, and produced four large-flowered, winter hardy, climbing roses which were put on the market in 1898 and 1899 by Pitcher & Mandar of south Orange, N. J. under the names of 'Pink Roamer', South Orange Perfection', 'Manda's Triumph' and 'Universal Favorite'. In addition, using 'Maréchal Niel', he obtained 'Evergreen Gem'.
Book  (1981)  Page(s) 287.  Includes photo(s).
R. wichuraiana Crép. Climbing, half-evergreen shrub, stems 2.5-6 m./8.3-20 ft. long, prostrate or trailing, green, with stout, hooked prickles; leaflets 7-9, broadly ovate-roundish, dark green above, paler beneath, very glossy on both sides; flowers in small, pyramidal corymbs, white, 4-5 cm./1.6-2 in. across, scented, June-July; sepals much shorter than petals, bald or slightly glandular like the pedicels; fruit ovoid, dark red, 15 mm./0.6 in. long. 2n=14. BM 7321; WR 19; 169 (as R. tacquetii); 170 (as R. mokanensis); BC 3440. (=R. luciae var. wichuraiana Koidz.; R. tacquetii Lév.; R. mokanensis Lév.). Japan, Korea, E. China. 1891...
Prostrate growth in its native habitat, branches take root easily, so very useful for further breeding of ground-covering roses. Has been used to produce new climbing roses since 1843; its descendants have mostly small, very glossy, dark green leaflets; the very weak stems and branches need to be tied up....In the United States this rose is often called the 'Memorial Rose', as it is frequently planted in cemeteries.
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