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'Rose Edouard' rose References
Book  (2003)  
p91. Viru Viraraghavan. A Rose Gallery From India.
The most popular rose for use in garland making and in worship is Rose Edouard which is grown on a field scale in the delta of the river Cauvery in the extreme south of the country, but the cultivation of this variety extends up to the northern plains where apart from use in temples and garland making, it is used for the extraction of rose oil. Another use is its utilization as a stock for budding roses especially for plants to be grown in pots......Out of the desert sands of Rajasthan near the holy town of Pushkar, we have large areas grown under 'Gruss an Teplitz'. The flowers are dried and sent on a daily basis to Mecca, the holiest of Muslim cities.

p127 Girija Viraraghavan. History of the Rose in India and Indian Rose Products.
Coming now to rose products, which are distinctively Indian, roses are the basis of many rose formulations - cosmetic, medicinal and dietary. In many areas of north India, especially where the soil is rich and the water abundant, like Pushkar in Rajasthan, and parts of Uttar Pradesh, Rosa damascena and also Rose Edouard are grown on a commercial scale, both for distilling rose oil and rose water. Another heritage rose widely grown is 'Gruss an Teplitz'.
Book  (2001)  Page(s) 450.  
Rosa x borboniana Desp., Ros. Gall. (1828) 106.
Rosa canina borboniana Thory ex Redouté, Roses 3 (1824) 105; R. borbonica L. Chaix in Fl. des serr. 7 (1851) 77.
R. x borboniana is a hybrid: R. chinensis Jacq. x R. damascena Mill.
Edward rose; German Bourbon-Rose; Hindi cheeniagulab, desigulab, baramasi.
For the use of flowers cultivated in India (Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Bengal, Mysore).
Ref.: Singh 1970, 175; Singh & Deolia 1963, 76; Singh et al. 1963, 451 pp.; Wealth of India 9, 1972.
Book  (1996)  Page(s) 118-119.  
Edward Rose (Rosa Edouard)
Varities: Deshi, Cheenia and Kaithal
Cheenia and Deshi are also called Baramasi which means bearing flowers throughout the year. The Cheenia gulab of Kanauj has purpke flowers with fragrance stronger than that of other cultivars of the Edward rose. The popularity of the cultivars of the Edward rose lies in that they flower for 10 months in N. India and throughout the year in the Southern States. Previously the Edward rose was used as rootstock for bud grafting. Nowadays it is mostly replaced by R. indica (cv Odorata). The flowers of E. rose are mainly used for making rose water, rose recipes and hair oils. They are also used in Ayurvedic drugs and cold drinks (Thandai). As a cut flower E. rose is used in making garlands and offering to deities in temples.
In south India the E. rose is popularly known as Rajapoo (in Tamil). In a number of places of Tamil Nadu and Karnataka the E. rose is grown for producing rose water. Tanjore being the largest centre of manufacturing rose water in the South.
The agro-technique as recommended for the Damask rose can be followed for the Edward rose. But it should be borne in mind that it needs more manure and fertilizer than any other rose...
The Edward rose blooms longer than the Damask rose. Besides the proper season (March-April) its flowering occurs for the second and the third times during monsoon (July-August) and autumn (October-November). In winter buds appear but do not open. In Peninsular India winter is not strong; for this reason the E. rose blooms there throughout the year.
The experiments at HBTI, Kanpur have proved that the quality of Otto produced from our roses (Bussorah and Edward) is not inferior to that of Bulgaria.
Book  (Nov 1994)  Page(s) 131.  
The name Bourbon was given to the race because the first plant was a chance seedling found on the Île de Bourbon (Île de Réunion) in 1817, growing in close proximity to both its parents. It became known as 'Rose Edward' in the adjacent island of Mauritius. Seeds were sent to Paris and presumably the best one raised was called 'Le Rosier de l'Île Bourbon'... In its second generation it was named and distributed in France around 1823, reaching England about two years later.
Book  (Jun 1992)  Page(s) 102.  
Rose Edouard ('Rose Neumann', 'Rose Dubreuil') Bourbon. Perichon/Neumann, 1821. From the red 'Tous-les-Mois' (DP) x R. chinensis 'Parson's Pink'. The author cites information from different sources and sorts out the confusion around this and other roses similarly named [see Source]... 'Rose Edouard' is the plant, or clones of the plant, found by Mons Perichon among his hedgelings that fateful day on the Îsle Bourbon. Cuttings of this were imported to France by Mons Neumann... Bright pink, shaded... The name 'Rose Edouard' (in remembrance of Mons Edouard Perichon, late settler)...
Book  (1988)  Page(s) 125.  
Dr. Pal considers roses most suitable for perfume today [1988] are 'Bussora' and 'Rose Edouard', while 'Gruss an Teplitz', a crimson rose of China derivation, has been used for experimental purposes.
Book  (1988)  Page(s) 124.  
...along borders' advised G. Speede in his Indian handbook of Gardening (Calcutta, 1841). This has a list of eight headed by the 'Madras' or 'Rose Edouard' ('v. common, no garden without it'): a cause of some contention, there being the West-recognised rose from the Ïle Bourbon of the same name. B.S. Bhatcharji, in Rose Growing in the Tropics (1935, 1959), wisely says........whether 'Edouard Rose'....
Book  (1983)  Page(s) 5.  
R. bourboniana Desportes (Bourbon Rose, Edward Rose) Hindi— Cheenia gulab, desigulab, baramasi An upright shrub with prickly and often glandular-hispid stems, up to 2.5 m in height. Leaflets usually 7, lustrous above but pubescent ...
Book  (1981)  Page(s) 72-75.  
R. chinensis Jacq......The westward spread of the China roses must have begun at a comparatively early date, for they seem to have been common in the gardens of India when the sub-continent started to be botanised toward the end of the 18th century. But it is doubtful if the China roses were ever quite so much at home in Bengal as the French rosarian Boitard suggests in his Manuel Complete (1836): 'Le féroce tigre du Bengale, le hideux crocodile du Gange, se cachent quelquefois , pour attendre leur proie, dans les touffes épaisses du Rosier Toujours Fleuri.' By the time British forces seized Mauritius from the French in 1810 several sorts of China roses were established in the gardens there, and were probably introduced in the time of Pierre Poivre, who established a famous collection of Far Eastern plants on the island between 1767 and 1773......

Through two lines of descent the Pink China is an ancestor of most modern garden roses. Crossed in South Carolina with R. moschata, it gave rise to 'Champney's Pink Cluster'....from which all the Noisettes and Tea roses descend. The second of its ancestral hybrids also arose outside Europe, on the Ile de Bourbon (Réunion), where sometime early in the 19th century it became hybridised with an Autumn Damask, giving rise to the race of Bourbon roses, from which, through the Hybrid Perpetuals, most modern garden roses descend...... It cannot be certain whether in either case it was 'Parsons' Pink' that was involved, as is usually assumed. A Pink China could have reached America at the same time as R. laevigata, by direct import from the Far East, while Réunion in likely to have had the same garden flora as Mauritius, which certainly did not owe its China roses to import from Britain....
Book  (1975)  
p20. B. P. Pal, Ph.D (Cantab), F.R.S., President Emeritus, The Rose Society of India.
Some Notes on Rose Hindi it is known as 'Cheenia', 'Baramasi' ( = perpetual flowering) or 'Desi Gulab' (= indigenous rose).....

p105. Dr. A. S. Thomas. Last year I wrote only of cultivars seen overseas during 1973. One of these was seen frequently on flower stalls outside Hindu temples in India and in an hotel garden at Udaipur. It seemed to be known by all as the 'Mogul Temple Rose of Persia' or the 'Temple Rose'. After considerable research and then correspondence with the great Indian authority on roses, Dr. B. P. Pal, I can now identify this rose as 'Rose Edouard'.
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