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'Kohl-Rose' References
Book  (2000)  Page(s) 138.  Includes photo(s).
‘Cabbage Rose’/’Centifolia’/’Centfeuilles’/Rosa x centifolia = Centifolia, rose moyen. Parfois surnommée ‘Rose des Peintres’, elle figure en effet sur bien des toiles de peintres flamands, et Redouté a fait son portrait… description. Pays-Bas, vers 1596.
Book  (2000)  Page(s) 152.  
‘Centifolia’ /Rosa x centifolia = Selon C.C. Hurst, botaniste à Cambridge, il s’agit probablement d’un hybride complexe, comptant des ancêtres aussi divers que Rosa rubra, Rosa phoenicea, Rosa moschata et Rosa canina… description. Avant 1596.
Article (magazine)  (Jun 1999)  Page(s) 98.  Includes photo(s).
Page 98: [Illustration from Redoute] Rosa centifolia One of the roses Josephine grew at Malmaison and that is still available today...
Book  (May 1998)  Page(s) 6, 7.  Includes photo(s).
Page 6: Rosa centifolia ('Cabbage Rose', 'Hundred-Petalled Rose', 'Rosier a cent feuilles') Description... numerous pink petals becoming darker towards the centre of the flower... in 1816 Rau stated that it is native to Northern Persia... Many cultivars are know: Miss Lawrence figured 19, and the Dutch catalogues list over 100... To obtain the maximum number of fine blooms, prune the bush in February to keep it dwarf...
Page 7: [Illustration]
Book  (1998)  Page(s) 452.  
Rosa x centifolia...Recent chromosome analysis has shown that this cannot be the "Hundred-leaved Rose" mentioned already by Theophrastus and Herodot, but is a complex hybrid from the 4 botanical species R. gallica, R. moschata, R. phoenicia and R. canina. This variety ....was possibly already developed at the end of the 15th century..
...Up to 2 m high, laxly branched bush with few suckers, branches armed with almost straight eneven prickles, the smooth foliage with seven leaflets, calyx with oil glands. One or more blooms, mostly with weak neck, roundish, pink, selsom white or red, densely filled, petals scalloped, strongly fragrant. Sepals longish, narrow and glandularly spotted. Fruit ovoid to round, red when ripe.....In the fresh blooms 0,02 to 0,073% essential oils, plentiful waxes...
Origin Caucasus, Iran, Turkey, mainly cultivated in Mediterenean countries..The most important cultivation regions today are France, Morocco and Italy. Drugs: Rosae aetheroleum, Rosae flos, Rosa hom. HAB34.
Book  (1997)  Page(s) 6, 149.  Includes photo(s).
Page 6: [Photo]
Page 149: (R. centifolia, 'Cabbage Rose', 'Provence Rose') Europe Pre-1600. Description and vital statistics. The fully double flowers of R. centifolia prohibit this rose from self-perpetuation from seed. [Explanation of genealogy.] Flowers deep pink, very double, cupped or cabbage-shaped when open.
Book  (1997)  Page(s) 21.  
An excellent candidate for pegging or training on a fence to manage its long, arching canes.
Website/Catalog  (1996)  
The Bundahišn [a Pahlavi text from Iran of the late 14th/early 15th century], listing gul (rose) as one of the fragrant flowers (guls; tr. Anklesaria, 16.13, tr. Bahār, p. 87), mentions particularly its species gul i sad-warg “the hundred-petaled rose” (cf. R. centifolia...) as belonging (or attributed) to the divinity Dēn (tr. Anklesaria, 16A.2, tr. Bahār, pp. 88-89).

...Another horticulturist, Abunaṣri Heravi, the author of Eršād al-zerāʿa, (comp. ...1515-16), in a chapter on “gol-e sorḵ and the like” (pp. 202-7), mentions sixteen kinds of gol [rose]: ....gol-e sorḵ-e ṣad-barg “hundred-petaled red rose”....
Book  (1996)  Page(s) 118.  
Rosa centifolia
Eng. Vernac.: Cabbage rose.
In the Britsh gardens it is known as 'Cabbage rose'. To the French perfumer it is 'Rose de Mai'. It grows wild in the eastern Caucasus. The wild varities are single-flowered.
Book  (1995)  Page(s) 128.  
[In the Shakespeare Garden at Charlecote Park...] Other shrubs which were known to Shakespeare, and mentioned in Gerard's Herball of 1597, include the cabbage rose or rose of Provence (Rosa x centifolia) and the damask rose (R. x damascena)...
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