'Rosa manettii Hort.' rose References
Book (1953) Page(s) 177-179.
In "The Manetti Understock," Dennison H. Morey and Warren M. Annis of Jackson & Perkins offer a brief history of Manetti, which is thought to be derived from a garden hybrid of the Old White Musk and the China, Old Blush. This hybrid, known as Champney's Pink Cluster, is the forbear of the Noisettes, including Manetti. Noisette seed purportedly arrived in Europe by 1817 and was widely grown by 1825, when an Italian hybridizer started using a Noisette as a rootstock. The stock was known as Rosa Manettii by 1830. In 1837, Thomas Rivers in England received a 9 inch cutting from an Itallian, Signor Crevelli, of Lake Como. Rivers called the stock Rosa Crevellii. The article goes on to document the long-running dispute between Thomas Rivers and William Paul about the merits of Manetti as a rootstock. It concludes with the recognition that Manetti remains the preeminent rootstock for greenhouse use for the production of cut flowers.
p177. The Manetti Understock by Dennison H. Morey, Hr., and Warren M. Annis, Research Department, Jackson & Perkins Co., Pleasanton, California. Commonplace things that we have long known about are often taken for granted. Undoubtedly many rosarians will be surprised at the interesting history of the understock so widely used for greenhouse roses.
When one looks up " Manetti " in Modern Roses he discovers the following: " See R. noisettiana Manettii (famous understock)." When wishing more information he looks up R. noisettiana Manettii he finds: , “R. noisettiana Manettii, Rehder (R. chinensis Manettii, hort. ; R. Manettii Crevellii) . Manetti Rose. Horticultural variety of (X) R. noisettiana. Long used as an understock." This brief official accounting hardly does justice to one of the oldest and even today most important rootstocks. The above diagnosis tells us several things, however. In the first case we learn that Prof. Rehder felt Manetti to be a variety of the hybrid class of Noisette roses. We also learn that horticulturalists have thought of it as a variety of Rosa chinensis and also as a distinct hybrid originating with Sr. Crevelli, an Italian botanist. In all cases where it is mentioned, the implication that it is an old and important rootstock is foremost. The beginnings of the Manetti rootstock are to be found in Charleston, South Carolina, about 1810 in the garden of John Champney whose rose garden yielded a natural hybrid between the old White Musk and the China (Bengal) Old Blush. This hybrid became known locally as Champney's Pink Cluster and it is the genetical basis for the Noisettiana class of roses to which Manetti belongs. There happened to be in Charleston when this variety was very new a French florist, one Philippe Noisette, who had a rose growing brother, Louis, in France to whom he sent seeds of Champney's Pink Cluster. Louis Noisette used Champney's Pink Cluster as a breeding basis and developed a new hybrid class of roses. Some authorities claim that the Noisettes arrived in France prior to 1807 but it seems likely that if the Noisettes are the progeny of Champney's Pink Cluster that they could not have arrived sooner than 1817 as that is when Philippe seems to have sent seed of this variety to his brother. In any event Noisettes were well distributed and widely grown and hybridized throughout Europe by 1825. About this time an Italian rose hybridizer began using a Noisettiana seedling as a rootstock. By 1830 this stock was extensively used in Italy and was known as Rosa Manettii. In 1837 Thomas Rivers, the first great English rose grower and breeder, received from an Italian correspondent a nine inch cutting of this Italian stock and since it rooted and grew very well he soon distributed it as the new rootstock Rosa Crevellii because he had indeed received it from Signor Crevelli, who lived on the banks of Lago de Como and who obtained it in the first place from Sr. Manetti of Como.* [*The Manetti rootstock was reported in Gardener's Chronicle of 1895, p734 ..
Book (1953) Page(s) 178.
.... [*The Manetti rootstock was reported in Gardener's Chronicle of 1895, p734, to have been grown from seed by Sr. Manetti of and at the Botanical Garden at Mouza, Italy.]
Almost immediately a very heated argument developed between the rose growers of England, both professional and amateur, regarding the merits of the new understock. Mr. Rivers hailed it as a cure all and as a panacea for all rose propagation difficulties. William Paul, who was a'young man at the time, was opposed to the novelty and continued to be for many years. As time passed it became evident that the Manetti understock was not the salvation of rose growers nor was it the great evil that Mr. Paul maintained. It did not displace Rosa canina nor the Boursalts nor Rosa laxa, nor the old stock Celine but it did come to have some very special uses for which it has as yet been unsupplanted and unsurpassed. First among these was its use as a stock for forcing roses, secondly it was used, for dwarf varieties, and third it was extensively used as a stock in areas where the soil was very sandy. The reason for the bad feeling between Mr. Rivers and Mr . Paul over this stock more than 100 years ago is probably that the two modes of budding and grafting then in vogue were not both suitable for Manetti. Some growers of that time ( 1840) , Mr. Rivers among them, budded their materials very low so that there was practically no part of the stem that was the stock variety. Mr. Paul and many others budded their material high with as much as nine or ten inches of the stock between the roots and the head, making a sort of short tree rose affair . Manetti works very well for low budding and rather poorly for the high budding then practiced. Rosa canina.worked well for high budding and so a most vitriolic discussion resulted over their relative merits because with Mr. Rivers and his sandy soil and low budding, Manetti worked fine. With Mr. Paul using high budding and planting in a heavy clay soil Manetti was rather unsuccessful. However, even Mr. Paul was growing his dwarfs and forcing varieties on Manetti by 1850. Mr. Paul had discontinued his attacks upon Manetti at about this time as well. With the introduction from Asia of Rosa multiflora in its several forms (R. polyantha, and the Crimson Rambler being most important) a new series of stocks were tried of which our hardy Multiflora stock of today is the most important. For American conditions R. canina worked very poorly and the French stock called in England and the United States, Ragged Robin, had but a relatively brief popularity. From R. multiflora hybrids several new stocks were developed one of which is very important as most California grown roses are budded onto it. Veilchenblau, Tausendschon and Dr. Huey belong to this group. Today Dr. Huey
(called Shafter in the trade) is the principal California rootstock. It has been 125 years since this rootstock was introduced. It is strange that the hybridizer has not produced a better stock for greenhouse use. It may be that the perfect genetic compliment for a greenhouse understock exists in Manetti and that John Champney made possible our modern cut rose industry.
p116 Griffith J. Buck. Iowa State College, Ames, Iowa. Varieties of Rose Understocks. R. Manettii. In the early part of the twentieth century this was second only to Canina in popularity. Today its use as a stock is practically restricted to greenhouse forcing roses. It produces a vigorous plant which tends to be short-lived. Although considered tender, it has lived through many Iowa winters without protection but has never carried enough wood to produce flowers. It blackspots readily. It is propagated by cuttage and may be grafted or budded with equal success.
p116. Lippiat Manetti. This stock is very similar to Manetti. Its origin is unknown. Grown from cuttings.
Magazine (Jul 1950) Page(s) 3. trimester, p. 74.
[From the article "Les Portes-Greffes du Rosier" by André Leroy, pp. 68-74]
M. RICHARDIER a constaté en Suisse la nette supériorité des rosiers hybrides de thé cultivés en serre, greffés sur Manetti.
Book (1937) Page(s) 74.
Manettii Crivelli (chinensis x moschata) [pollen quality] 80%
Manettii Dipp. (synonym of Manettii Criv. in the combination: chinensis var. Manettii Dipp.) [pollen quality] 80%
Magazine (Aug 1936) Page(s) 110.
Au sujet des écussons, j'avais mes préférences comme sujets, je préférais de beaucoup le Rosier multiflore de la
Grifferaie, peu épineux et assez maniable, au maussade Rosier Manetti, que je qualifiais alors de méchant. Vers cette époque, une nouvelle méthode se répandit, méthode employée à Lyon. On commença à écussonner sur collet d'églantier. Ce fut une innovation, car le semis d'églantier fit que petit à petit la bouture de multiflore et de Manetti fut abandonnée.
p53 H. W. Stansfeld, Leslie Manor, Camperdown, Victoria. Roses in England, 1935. [at Frank Cant’s Nursery]:
The eternal Rose stock question was discussed with the foreman, and I was told that seedling briar gave best all-round results for dwarfs. Manetti is cheap to produce and easy to strike, but, strange to say, cannot be used for any variety having the least trace of yellow in its colouring, as if knocked they invariably come away at the union.
p134. R. Marion Hatton. Understocks in America. Manetti is used to a large extent for forcing Roses under glass, but few garden Roses are grown on this understock today. It produces too many suckers to be popular with our present public.
Book (1935) Page(s) 53-62.
Article: Experimenting on different Understocks.
Mme. Edouard Herriot budded on 'Manetti' shows better growth and will give more blooms, especially on a well-established plant, than when budded on any other stock... Generally, the Pernetianas give poor results on 'Manetti'.
p. 55: Golden Emblem, still the best yellow rose in California, never does make a good union with 'Manetti', and usually dies out in two to three years, unless it makes its own roots above the union... While 'Manetti' is a fine understock for the darker Hybrid Teas... it is fast being raplaced by 'Japanese Multiflora' and 'Odorata'... ['Manetti'] has a nasty habit of throwing out roots from one side of the cutting only, and while it may be a fine plant it looks lopsided to the buyer and quite often has to be classed below No. 1 grade on this account. 'Manetti' also has a short season during which it may be budded; June is the best month, and after July the flow of sap stops almost completely, making it next to impossible to work...
Book (1934) Page(s) 130.
Jessie Ferguson. Review of "A Botanical study of Rose Stocks". This is a vigorous variety, having a deerp, coarse root system with few fibres. Cuttings strike readily and are the only means of propagation, as fruit is rarely produced.....
Book (1926) Page(s) xii.
[From an advertisement in the American Rose Annual 1926
, p. viii:] The newer shades in roses such as Coral, Old Gold, Saffron Yellow, Terra Cotta and Oriental Red are obtained by planting Pernetiana Roses
, and these roses are only a success
when budded upon Rosomanes Stock. This distinction is quite noticeable in the rose 'Los Angeles'
which proves a failure when budded upon any other stock... Our Hybrid Tea and Perpetual Roses are budded upon Multiflora
and Manetti Stock... [they note that in their catalog they
] do not pass along the description of the Hybridists as the roses grow in Europe but as they grow in our Nursery, always stating defects as well as merits...