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'Hedgehog Rose' References
Website/Catalog  (1997)  
Rosa rugosa Thunberg 2n=14
Book  (Feb 1995)  Page(s) 48.  Includes photo(s).
Book  (Mar 1994)  Page(s) 91.  Includes photo(s).
Rosa rugosa Description, vital statistics and tips
Book  (11 Jun 1993)  Page(s) 44.  
A parent of 'Robusta'... [Verrier was unnable to find much information about it] except that it is said to be a rugosa variety.
Book  (1993)  Page(s) 68.  Includes photo(s).
[Listed under "Wild Roses and Their Cultivars"] A native of the coasts of Japan, eastern Siberia, northern China and Korea where it grows mainly on sand dunes near the sea, forming low, suckering patches.
Book  (1993)  Page(s) 70.  Includes photo(s).
The collection of old Rosa rugosa varieties in a cool border along a north-facing wall at Mottisfont Abbey, Hampshire.
Book  (Aug 1990)  Page(s) 52.  
aka 'Hama nashi'; 'Shore Pear'... one of the hardiest of the wild roses. It originated in Russia, Korea, Japan, and China and was brought to the United States in the nineteenth century... In Japan this rose is known as "Hama nashi," or "Shore Pear."
Book  (1981)  Page(s) 269.  
R. rugosa Thunb. Shrub 1-2m./3.3-6.6 ft. high, stems stout, tomentose, very prickly and bristly; leaflets 5-9, elliptic, 3-5 cm./1.2-2 in. long, dark green, wrinkled and glossy above, firm, thick, golden-yellow in the autumn; glaucous, reticulate and puberulent beneath; flowers solitary or few together, purple to white, 6-8 cm./2.4-3.2 in. across, june to autumn; pedicels short and bristly; fruits depressed-globose, to 2.5cm./1 in. across, smooth, of commercial use. 2n=14. (=R. regeliana Linden & André). N. China, Korea, Japan; locally naturalized in N., W. and C. Europe. May be the hardiest of all roses. 1854.
Many varieties and hybrids.
Book  (1981)  Page(s) 269.  
Book  (1976)  Page(s) 746.  
Chapter 16 - Functions of flavonoids in plants by J. B. Harborne
Another example is Rosa, in which cyanidin-peonidin mixtures are found almost exclusively in pinker varieties (Rosa rugosa and derived hybrids) whereas crimson and deeper red varieties have only cyanidin. (Harborne, 1961).
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