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Floweringin wild roses is controlled by a gene called RoKSN which encodes a protein that inhibits flowering. RoKSN is activated by gibberellins. At the start of the growing season the concentration of gibberellins is too low to activate RoKSN and flowering proceeds without restraint. Shortly after, the concentration of gibberellins increases, RoKSN is activated and flowering is inhibited.
Recurrent-flowering roses possess a recessive mutation of RoKSN caused by the insertion of a 9-kbp retrotansposon.This disables RoKSN, the inhibitory protein is not produced and flowering is unrestrained.
In climbing mutants of recurrent-flowering roses, the size of the inserted retrotransposon in RoKSN is reduced from 9 kbp to 1 kbp. This results in a partial reversion to recurrent flowering.
Published in "Reference Module in Life Sciences"