'Gulsurkh' rose References
Article (magazine) (2017)
Recurrent-flowering sports of Rosa chinensis were found, cultivated and bred in China about 1000 years ago (Guoliang, 2003). Modern-day recurrent-flowering cultivars were bred from these sports. The gene responsible for this characteristic is a mutant gene that is recessive to its wild-type allele and F1 hybrids between recurrent-flowering cultivars and wild roses are seasonal-flowering. It is generally the case that a recessive mutant gene is a damaged gene that is unable to function normally. In the case of the recurrent-flowering gene the ability that has been lost is the restraint of flowering. Recently information has emerged at the molecular level, on how this happens.
The wild-type homologue of the recessive gene for seasonal flowering in roses has been named RoKSN, where Ro stands for rose and KSN for “Koushin”, the ancient Japanese name for recurrent-flowering Rosa chinensis (Iwata et al., 2012). RoKSN encodes a protein called RoKSN (written without italics). RoKSN is activated (transcribed into mRNA) when gibberellins are present in shoot apices in a sufficiently high concentration. RoKSN is then produced which prevents the initiation of flowers (Randoux et al., 2012; Remay et al., 2009).
Newsletter (May 2015) Page(s) 9. Vol 36, No. 3.
Peter Holmes, President Bermuda Rose Society.
....The Bermuda Rose Society logo features the rose 'Slater's Crimson China' as it is now known, previously called by its mystery name "Belfield"..... the Society has propagated it intensively and all new members receive a bush to care for.
Article (magazine) (2012) Page(s) 17-18.
The British Museum possesses a remnant of a crimson China rose from the Herbarium of Gronovius, labeled “Chineesche Eglantier Roosen” (1733). It has been confirmed as the type specimen of R. chinensis Jacquin, named in 1768. This taxon has persisted to this day, yet is now known to represent a diverse group that has been evolving in cultivation for many centuries. Its wild ancestor was discovered nearly one hundred and fifty years after the naming of R. chinensis and was named R. chinensis var. spontanea.
p68 Photo "Belfield" by Stephen Scanniello.
p69. Gregg Lowery. "Belfield". when the American rosarian Richard Thomson encountered this rose at Belfield, he believed he had discovered the long-lost 'Slater's Crimson China'. Long familiar to Bermudians as the "Belfield" or "the Belfield rose", the rose has small deep red flowers with yellow stamens and only the occasional fleck of white. Compact and ever-blooming, it has a very ancient appearance.
p76. Liesbeth Cooper. DNA Results on Bermuda Mystery Roses.
'Slater's China' (R. chinensis var. semperflorens). The Bermuda samples were different from the other six samples tested, five of which were identical: four from San Jose, California, and one from the Botanical Garden of Lyon. Differing from all these was a sample from l'Hay-les-Roses, France.
Article (magazine) (2011) Page(s) 158.
Table 1 The main morphological characters, distribution information, and chromosome number of varieties of R. odorata and R. chinensis, with respective names taken from Hurst's (1941) descriptions
R. chinensis 'Yue yuehong'; 2n = 2x, 3x, 4x = 14, 21, 28; Double or semi-double; Variable [colour]; Widely cultivated elsewhere; Slater's Crimson China = R. chinensis var. semperflorens
Booklet (2009) Page(s) 36-37.
The accession of R. chinensis var. semperflorens [ex Flower Research Inst., Yunnan] in this study was in the 'Old Blush' group based on the SSR data as well, so assuming correct collection and labeling, this example of the red variety of R. chinensis appears to be a flower color sport of 'Old Blush' or vice versa. It is also notable that this particular specimen is not identical to the specimen of 'Slater's Crimson China' (C29) [ex Ralph Moore] used in this study, though they are sometimes cross-referenced because these names have been used interchangeably at times in history (Dickerson, 1992).. In addition, these samples of R. chinensis var. semperflorens and 'Slater's Crimson China' were different ploidy levels: diploid and triploid, respectively. A rose that did prove to have the same profile as 'Slater's Crimson China' was the found rose 'Ferndale Red China' (C38) [ex Vintage Gardens], so it seems that rose has found its identity. However, there is more than one plant identified in the trade as 'Slater's Crimson China' (Piola, et al., 2002), so testing multiple sources could investigate the different clones in the trade, but would still not be able to say with certainty which were the original cultivar.
Booklet (2009) Page(s) 28.
Diploid....R. chinensis var. semperflorens, heterozygous loci 74% [Provenance: China]
Booklet (2009) Page(s) 29.
Triploid...Slater's Crimson China [Provenance: Texas A&M University material from Ralph Moore]
Rosa chinensis Jacq.
Habitat : Cultivated chiefly in Kannauj, Kanpur and Hathras.
English : Bengal Rose, Monthly Rose.
Ayurvedic : Taruni-Kantaka (nonclassical). (Flowers—crimson or pink.)
Unani : Chini Gulaab.
Folk : Kaantaa-Gulaab.
Action : Hips—applied to wounds, injuries, sprains and foul ulcers. R. chinensis Jacq. and R. borbonianaDesp. are synonyms of Rosa indica, found and cultivated throughout India. This variety is also known as Edward Rose or Kat Gulaab.
Article (misc) (Jun 2007)
The ever blooming form of R. chinensis, R. chinensis semperflorens ,(Slater’s Crimson China) is commonly cultivated in Indian gardens. Some authorities consider that this rose has been cultivated in India for several centuries. Giant bushes could be found, almost growing wild, in the past.
A Mrs. Gore, who wrote ‘The Book of Roses – a Rose Fancier’ Manual’ in 1838 and which seems to rely heavily on Monsiuer Boitard’s “ The Manuel Complet’, 1836, says. “ in vast thickets of the beautiful Rosa semperflorens ( a native also of China) the tigers of Bengal and crocodiles of the Ganges are known to lie in wait for their prey”.