'Kazanlik' rose References
Book (2011) Page(s) 247.
Iwata et al. (2000) analyzed two Summer Damask varieties ('Kazanlik' and 'ork and Lancaster') and two Autumn Damsks ('Quatre Saisons' and 'Quatre Saisons Blanc Mousseux') and found no difference in their DNA profile using 24 RAPD primaers. Agaoglu et al. (2000) found no difference among accessions of R. damscena plants in Turkey using RAPD markers. Baydar et al. (2004) demonstrated that 15 R. damascena plants brought from 15 different plantations in Isparta province, which is the main rose growing region in Turkey, possess identical genotypes based on AFLP markers and nine microstaellite loci. Rusanov aet al. (2005a) characterized a total of 40 Damsk rose accessions of which 25 originated from Bulgaria (the collection of the Institute of Roses and Aromatic Plants, Kazanlik) using microstaellite arkers derived from Rosa wichurana and Rosa hybrida. The results showed that all analyzed 'Triginitipetala' accessions and the old garden Damask rose varieties 'York and Lancaster' and 'Quatre Saisons' (in confirmation of Iwata et al. 2000) possess identical genotypes. In Iran more than one genotype was found, but the genotype in the main production area was identical to 'Trigintipetala' (Babaei et al. 2007). In conclusion, it appears that the industrial production of rose oil in Bulgaria, Turhey, and to a great extent in Iran is based on a single genotype (and mutants thereof)....
The studies of Babaei et al. (2007) andKiani et al. (2008) identified non-'Trigintipetala' genotypes, mostly in the mountainous northwestern part of Iran, with microsatellite alleles taht are not present in the Bulgarian and Turkish genotype. They are therefore not the result of self-pollination. This may suggest that the center of diversity may be in Iran, but detailed sampling of wild populations has not been carried out in the whole distribution area of the species.
Article (magazine) (2007) Page(s) 318.
Bulgarian rose oil was reported, which was as follows: beta-citronellol (30.31%), geraniol (16.96%), phenyl ethyl alcohol (12.60%), nerol (8.46%), hexacosane (3.70%), nonadecane (2.7%), linalool (2.15%),beta-Ionone (1.00%), ecosane (1.65%), docacosane (1.27%), farnesol (1.36%), neryal acetate (1.41%), citronellyl propionate (1.38%), geranial (1.35%), alpha-pinene (0.60%), myrceen (0.46%), cis rose oxide (0.55%), decanal (0.51%), terpine-4-ol (0.55%), beta-caryophyllene+citronellyl act (0.81%), iso borneol (0.57%), heptadecane (0.92%).
Book (2007) Page(s) pl. 244. Includes photo(s).
Rosa damascena...Its intensely fragrant flowers open in June and today ît is widely cultivated around Isparta and Burdur...
Article (magazine) (2007)
Cluster analysis resulted in grouping of the 40 accessions ]of Rosa damascena] into nine distinct genotypes..... The main group consisted of 27 landraces that showed the same microsatellite profile. This group included all accessions from the main rose oil production sites of Damask rose in Iran [Isfahan]. The pattern of this group was identical to that of an accession from Bulgarian production areas. Rusanov et al. showed that all Bulgarian Damask roses are this genotype...
Website/Catalog (2006) Page(s) 21.
Graham Thomas believes the true 'Kazanlik', from the attar fields of Bulgaria, is the rose called 'Professeur Emile Perrot'. Vintage does not dispute this, but is convinced that the 'Professeur Emile Perrot' they received from Mike Lowe is different.
Book (Aug 2002) Page(s) 52.
Damask, before 1867
Article (website) (Mar 2001)
Rosa damascena ‘Trigintipetala’
....The damask rose enjoys heat, water, and high fertility, and under these conditions it flowers well. Roses can be successfully grown on a wide range of soils but they do best on well-drained soils, with a soil pH of 6.0-6-5. Adequate water is essential throughout the vegetative and flowering periods, and where irrigation is needed, basal watering, such as drippers, are favoured as they avoid wetting the flowers at harvest time. The frequency of watering depends on the porosity of the soil and the seasonal weather conditions. Roses are gross feeders and enjoy high fertility conditions. Fertilisers containing nitrogen, phosphorus, sulphur and potassium are needed for high flower production, and the chosen fertiliser dressing should relate to soil analysis.
...The production block of Trigintipetala at Redbank was established with plants budded on R. multiflora stock.
....As they mature, the plants form hedgerows up to 2 m in height and have good wind
....No flowers are produced in the establishment year. The summer damasks only flower well on mature wood and pruning requirements are minimal. The production block at Redbank was left unpruned, and flower production levels continued to increase over three seasons as the plants
grew in size. Under Central Otago conditions there has been minimal incidence of pests and disease, and control strategies for pests such as aphids have not been warranted.
.....Trigintipetala flowers during November and December in Central Otago. The flowers are picked into sacks as early as possible each day on the basis of flower maturity. A flower is picked as it reaches full bloom and unopened buds and flowers are left for subsequent picking.
....Picking is extremely labour intensive. Although there is variation in picker efficiency, plant size and flower density, the best pickers have not exceeded 6 kg of flowers/hour, and typically the average is closer to 3 kg of flowers/hour. At 2.5-5.0 g/flower, this represents 200-400 flowers/kg. At
Redbank Research Station, the crop produced 5.6 kg of flowers/plant in the third flowering season. This equates to a total flower yield of around 9.2 t/ha at a density of 1650 plants/ha. The picked flowers should be chilled immediately to prevent heating, and distilled as soon as practical.
Article (website) (Dec 2000)
There are two types of essential oil producing roses cultivated in the Valley of the Roses. The Rosa damascena forma triginipetala(the pink/light red Damask Rose) and the Rosa damascena var. alba sometimes called Rosa alba(White Rose) The Damask rose is by the far the most important as it yields a higher quantity of oil and many people consider its quality superior(This is one of those things that is open to debate. The White Rose also produces a wonderful oil in both the essential oil and absolute form but it has its own unique qualities) The White Rose is a sturdier crop and is sometimes planted as hedgerows around the Damask Roses. They are also planted at higher elevations where the pink rose does not survive.
....Historically it is believed that Rosa damascena was brought to the Kazanlik area(located in the Valley of the Roses) from Tunisia in 1420 by a Turkish judge. At that time that part of Bulgaria was part of the Turkish Empire and the love of the rose had been well established in the hearts of the people of that region over several centuries. When the roses where planted in this particular valley, they grew extremely well and the emperor of that time Sultan Murad III requested the judge to establish more rose gardens for then needs of the palace.
Book (2000) Page(s) 336. Includes photo(s).
‘Kazanlik’ /Rosa damascena trigintipetala /’Trigintipetala’ = Damas… description… buisson anguleux formant un fourré de tiges grêles, vert brunâtre, à fins aiguillons rouges, sous un beau feuillage vert cendré, finement dentelé, au toucher soyeux. Avant 1700.
Book (1998) Page(s) 455.
Rosa x damascena Mill. ...Following recent comparative bloom wax analyses on artificially created F1-hybrids of R. centifolia x R. gallica, Kazanlik is again seen rather as a descendant of these two rose species.