'Kazanlik' rose References
Book (2020) Page(s) 85.
'Professeur Emile Perrot' (Perrot/Turbat, 1930) Growth habit: upright, not bushy, up to 1.50 m, many varying prickles. Foliage: green, relatively tender, leaflets elliptical, mostly 7. Flowers: in clusters, medium sized, full, somewhat dishevelled.
Book (2011) Page(s) 247.
Iwata et al. (2000) analyzed two Summer Damask varieties ('Kazanlik' and 'ork and Lancaster') and two Autumn Damsks ('Quatre Saisons' and 'Quatre Saisons Blanc Mousseux') and found no difference in their DNA profile using 24 RAPD primaers. Agaoglu et al. (2000) found no difference among accessions of R. damscena plants in Turkey using RAPD markers. Baydar et al. (2004) demonstrated that 15 R. damascena plants brought from 15 different plantations in Isparta province, which is the main rose growing region in Turkey, possess identical genotypes based on AFLP markers and nine microstaellite loci. Rusanov aet al. (2005a) characterized a total of 40 Damsk rose accessions of which 25 originated from Bulgaria (the collection of the Institute of Roses and Aromatic Plants, Kazanlik) using microstaellite arkers derived from Rosa wichurana and Rosa hybrida. The results showed that all analyzed 'Triginitipetala' accessions and the old garden Damask rose varieties 'York and Lancaster' and 'Quatre Saisons' (in confirmation of Iwata et al. 2000) possess identical genotypes. In Iran more than one genotype was found, but the genotype in the main production area was identical to 'Trigintipetala' (Babaei et al. 2007). In conclusion, it appears that the industrial production of rose oil in Bulgaria, Turhey, and to a great extent in Iran is based on a single genotype (and mutants thereof)....
The studies of Babaei et al. (2007) andKiani et al. (2008) identified non-'Trigintipetala' genotypes, mostly in the mountainous northwestern part of Iran, with microsatellite alleles taht are not present in the Bulgarian and Turkish genotype. They are therefore not the result of self-pollination. This may suggest that the center of diversity may be in Iran, but detailed sampling of wild populations has not been carried out in the whole distribution area of the species.
Article (magazine) (2007) Page(s) 318.
Bulgarian rose oil was reported, which was as follows: beta-citronellol (30.31%), geraniol (16.96%), phenyl ethyl alcohol (12.60%), nerol (8.46%), hexacosane (3.70%), nonadecane (2.7%), linalool (2.15%),beta-Ionone (1.00%), ecosane (1.65%), docacosane (1.27%), farnesol (1.36%), neryal acetate (1.41%), citronellyl propionate (1.38%), geranial (1.35%), alpha-pinene (0.60%), myrceen (0.46%), cis rose oxide (0.55%), decanal (0.51%), terpine-4-ol (0.55%), beta-caryophyllene+citronellyl act (0.81%), iso borneol (0.57%), heptadecane (0.92%).
Book (2007) Page(s) pl. 244. Includes photo(s).
Rosa damascena...Its intensely fragrant flowers open in June and today ît is widely cultivated around Isparta and Burdur...
Article (magazine) (2007)
Cluster analysis resulted in grouping of the 40 accessions ]of Rosa damascena] into nine distinct genotypes..... The main group consisted of 27 landraces that showed the same microsatellite profile. This group included all accessions from the main rose oil production sites of Damask rose in Iran [Isfahan]. The pattern of this group was identical to that of an accession from Bulgarian production areas. Rusanov et al. showed that all Bulgarian Damask roses are this genotype...
Book (2006) Page(s) 73.
Given as 1930.
Book (2006) Page(s) 21, 54 (photo). Includes photo(s).
Damask, No rebloom/Best fragrance/Tall broad-spreading canopies, heavy caned below and twiggy at the extremities, Keller?, 1689? ([provenence:] Huntington i.d.)
Puure pink flowers of typical Damask form, opening blowzy and fragrant from dark pink buds. Graham Thomas believes the true Kazanlik, from the attar fields of Bulgaria, is the rose called Professeur Émile Perrot.
Professeur Émile Perrot
Damask, No rebloom/Outstanding fragrance/Tall broad-spreading canopies, heavy caned below and twiggy at the extremities, Perrot, found 1931 ([provenance] Lowe; Perrot)
Large very shapely flowers set this fragrant rose apart from the blowsier Kazanlik, which is more fragrant still. Brought from the rose fields of Bulgaria by the French professor, this rose rightly attracts much attention in our garden.
Website/Catalog (2006) Page(s) 21.
Graham Thomas believes the true 'Kazanlik', from the attar fields of Bulgaria, is the rose called 'Professeur Emile Perrot'. Vintage does not dispute this, but is convinced that the 'Professeur Emile Perrot' they received from Mike Lowe is different.
Book (Aug 2002) Page(s) 52.
Damask, before 1867
Article (website) (Mar 2001)
Rosa damascena ‘Trigintipetala’
....The damask rose enjoys heat, water, and high fertility, and under these conditions it flowers well. Roses can be successfully grown on a wide range of soils but they do best on well-drained soils, with a soil pH of 6.0-6-5. Adequate water is essential throughout the vegetative and flowering periods, and where irrigation is needed, basal watering, such as drippers, are favoured as they avoid wetting the flowers at harvest time. The frequency of watering depends on the porosity of the soil and the seasonal weather conditions. Roses are gross feeders and enjoy high fertility conditions. Fertilisers containing nitrogen, phosphorus, sulphur and potassium are needed for high flower production, and the chosen fertiliser dressing should relate to soil analysis.
...The production block of Trigintipetala at Redbank was established with plants budded on R. multiflora stock.
....As they mature, the plants form hedgerows up to 2 m in height and have good wind
....No flowers are produced in the establishment year. The summer damasks only flower well on mature wood and pruning requirements are minimal. The production block at Redbank was left unpruned, and flower production levels continued to increase over three seasons as the plants
grew in size. Under Central Otago conditions there has been minimal incidence of pests and disease, and control strategies for pests such as aphids have not been warranted.
.....Trigintipetala flowers during November and December in Central Otago. The flowers are picked into sacks as early as possible each day on the basis of flower maturity. A flower is picked as it reaches full bloom and unopened buds and flowers are left for subsequent picking.
....Picking is extremely labour intensive. Although there is variation in picker efficiency, plant size and flower density, the best pickers have not exceeded 6 kg of flowers/hour, and typically the average is closer to 3 kg of flowers/hour. At 2.5-5.0 g/flower, this represents 200-400 flowers/kg. At
Redbank Research Station, the crop produced 5.6 kg of flowers/plant in the third flowering season. This equates to a total flower yield of around 9.2 t/ha at a density of 1650 plants/ha. The picked flowers should be chilled immediately to prevent heating, and distilled as soon as practical.