Book (Dec 2019) Page(s) 18-19.
At first, it seemed important to test all Edouard and Edward roses from different collections, and from different continents, thanks to generous collectors from Reunion, France, India, and, of course, my own experimental garden in Colmar. The profiles are absolutely identical for all markers of all chromosomes. These results indicate that the typical "Rose Edouard" is one and the same clone. The 'Rose Edouard and the 'Edward' rose correspond to the same clone...
...we compared the Rose Edouard with the Rose 'Four Seasons' and found for each locus, at least 50% allele identity. ...The Damask rose 'Four Seasons' is a direct parent of 'Rose Edouard'. The reblooming trait of the latter is in part inherited from this parent...
...'Old Blush' seems to correspond to the second parent. The alleles of 'Rose Edouard' that do not come from the first parent 'Quatre Saisons', all correspond to those of 'Old Blush'. If the latter seems to be a good candidate, it is nevertheless diploid! The crossing between a diploid rose and a tetraploid rose should make the 'Rose Edouard', a triploid rose! We know that the latter is tetraploid. ...in crosses of roses with different ploidies, occasional non-disjunctions are always possible. In this case, for each locus, 'Old Blush' should not simply have given half of its chromosomes to 'Rose Edouard', but all.
Magazine (2015) Page(s) 269.
Amongst the four understocks used in these studies, three of these namely Rosa bourboniana-Edouard (non-flowering type), R. bourboniana-Edouard (flowering type)-baramasi and R. multiflora (briar) are commonly used in India and have ...
Article (magazine) (2014) Page(s) 148-150. Includes photo(s).
A population of approximately 50,000 plants raised from mixed stem cuttings collected from perennial rose plantations at the University of Agriculture, Udaipur, Rajasthan, India, and maintained in the field of the CSIR-Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology, Palampur, Himachal Pradesh, India, were utilized as an original gene pool of R. damascena. Two varieties, Jwala and Himroz were diversified through selections of desirable traits (morphological/oil content) across 25,000 plants. The five elites, three of R. damascena var. Jwala, (Indica, Super jwala and Jwala) and two of R. damascena var. Himroz (Hot himroz and Himroz) were developed through field selections and maintained at the Natural Plant Products Division Experimental Farm of the Institute. Rosa bourboniana plants were collected from the Fragrance and Flavour Development Centre, Kannauj, UP, India, during 1992 and maintained at the Natural Plant Products Division Experimental Farm of the Institute....
Rosa bourboniana had the lowest oil content (0.017%)
[see Photos for Table with results]
Rosa bourboniana Desportes.
Habitat : Cultivated throughout India, particularly in Uttar Pradesh on commercial scale, for rose water.
[Name in] Ayurvedic : Taruni, Desi Gulaab, Baaraamaasi, Cheenia-Gulaab. (Flowers—usually purple.)
Siddha : Rojapoo (Tamil).
Action : Fruit—applied to wounds, injuries, sprains, foul ulcers.
Article (magazine) (2009) Page(s) 258. Includes photo(s).
The total flowering period of R. damascena in a year is only around 25–30 days during April–May. Rosa bourboniana L. (Edward rose), also an essential oil (0.015%) yielding species, is popular on account of its longer blooming period and ease of propagation. The flowering in this species is sporadic and it flowers thrice a year (Sood and Nagar, 2004).
...The experimental material comprised of three parental lines viz. R. damascena cv. Jwala, R. damascena cv. Himroz, R. bourboniana and 68 putative F1 hybrids Jwala x R. bourboniana (11) and Himroz x R. bourboniana (57), maintained in the experimental field of the Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology, Palampur, Himachal Pradesh, India. The hybrids were developed by adopting round cut method of emasculation followed by hand pollination (Dhyani et al., 2005) during 2002–2003.
[See photos for Table of characteristics]
Article (website) (Sep 2008)
Rosa bourbonia/Edward Rose
Rosa bourbonia absolute is to my knowledge only extracted in India most of which comes from South India in the state of Tamil Nadu. The deciduous shrub is also grown extensively in Rajasthan but its main use is for the production of attar, gulkand and rose water with a small amount of essential oil also being produced in that dry desert region.
The absolute has distinct olfactory characteristics from Rosa damascena and Rosa centifolia in that it presents a more ambery, green honeyed note intermingled with its rich roseaceous heart note. One can distinguish something of the beauty of the Rose Leaf Absolute in its bouquet. The tenacity is very good with a soft delicate radiance.
It can be used in natural perfumery in much the same way as Rosa damascena and Rosa centifolia absolutes but will add its own unique quality to the composition.
Book (2006) Page(s) 77.
Graph: Flower production...under Faisalabad climatic conditions. Rosa borboniana. [March 22 blooms, April 33, May 25 - versus r. centifolia which bloomed around the whole year]
Book (2006) Page(s) 113-114.
Percentage Composition of the Components Identified through Gas Chromatography in Essential Oil of Rosa Extracted through Hexane Solvent Extraction.
Methyl Eugenol 2.534
Geranyl Acetate 4.235
Phenyl ethyl Alcohol 40.234
Benzyl Alcohol 5.254
Rhodinyl Acetate 5.364
Citronellyl Acetate 2.458
Benzyl Acetate 1.257
Phenyl ethyl Formate 2.354
Percentage Composition of the Components Identified through Gas Chromatography in Essential Oil of Rosa extracted through Ether Solvent Extraction
Methyl Eugenol 2.131
Geranyl Acetate 4.234
Phenyl ethyl Alcohol 43.145
Benzyl Alcohol 4.351
Rhodinyl Acetate 2.498
Citronellyl Acetate 1.234
Benzyl Acetate -
Phenyl ethyl Formate -
Article (website) (13 Jun 2005)
The use and demand of rose petals is increasing day by day. Its exports are on the rise thus providing foreign exchange. Out of the indigenous roses that are used, the most popular and common variety are gulkandi, gulab or baramasi. Due to its commercial demand it is extensively planted in the plains of Sindh and Punjab, particularly in Hyderabad and Chkawal districts.
A variety of desi gulab (local rose) known in the west as rosa edouard, is pink, highly fragrant and flowers profusely in spring season. It is used mainly for making garlands, oil, water and conserve (Gulkand). It is also used as a rootstock for the propagation of modern roses.
Article (website) (2004)
Dans son livre Roses at the Cape of Good Hope, Gwen Fagan relate les propos du Dr. B. P. Pal, fondateur de l'Indian Society of Genetics and Plant Breeding selon qui des roses portant ce nom avaient été cultivées autrefois à grande échelle en Inde pour la production de produits parfumés au même titre que les roses de Damas. Selon Pal encore, cette culture était en régression. Par la suite elles ont également été utilisées comme porte-greffes, mais leur sensibilité aux maladies fongiques les a fait abandonner progressivement.
Les mêmes roses sont cependant toujours utilisées en Inde pour l'ornementation des temples. Odile Masquelier, de roseraie de La Bonne Maison, à La Mulatière, près de Lyon m'a précisé que deux roses légèrement différentes par leur couleur y étaient utilisées à cet usage. Gwen Fagan précise également qu'il existe bien deux 'Rose Edward' en Inde, l'une formant un arbuste un peu plus haut que l'autre. Elle recense 'Rose Edward' et la photographie aux Seychelles, à l'Île Maurice, au jardin de Patraia près de Florence (Italie) et bien entendu en Afrique du sud.¨
In her book Roses at the Cape of Good Hope, Gwen Fagan recounts the words of Dr. B.P. Pal, founder of the Indian Society of Genetics and Plant Breeding, according to whom roses having this name [Rose Edouard] had been grown on wide scale in India for the production of perfume in the same manner as Damask roses. Again according to Pal, this culture is in decline. Subsequently, they have also been used as understock, but their susceptibility to fungal diseases has led to this being abandoned.,
The same roses, however, are still used in India to decorate temples. Odile Masquelier of the rose garden La Bonne Maison, at La Mulatière near Lyon told me that two roses slightly different in colour were used for this purpose. Gwen Fagan also states that there are two 'Rose Edward' in India, one forming a shrub slightly higher than the other. She identifies 'Rose Edward' and photographs it on the Seychelles, Mauritius, the garden Patraia near Florence (Italy) and of course in South Africa.