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Mansfeld's encyclopedia of agricultural and horticultural crops, Vol. 1
(2001)  Page(s) 444.  
Rosa villosa L. ...In Slovakia the cultivar 'Karpatia' is grown, in Central Germany only cultivation trials. Cultivated as hedges for wind protection, locally also as an ornamental shrub.
(2001)  Page(s) 1331.  
Paeonia japonica (Makino) Miyabe & Takeda in Gard. Chron. 48 (1910) 366.
Paeonia obovata Maxim. var. japonica Makino in Bot. Mag. Tokyo 16 (1902) 59.
Japanese. yama-shakuyaku.
Japan, Korea, China.
var. pilosa Nakai in J. Jap. Bot. 13 (1937) 395.
Japanese. ke-yama-shakuyaku; Korean. hinhambagggot, baegdzagjag.
Japan, Korea.
In Korea cultivated for medicinal purposes. The roots are used medicinally.
Ref.: Hammer et al. 1989, 193.
(2001)  Page(s) 1331.  
Paeonia lactiflora Pall., Reise 3 (1776) 286.
Paeonia albiflora Pall., Fl. Ross. 1,2 (1789) 92; P. edulis Salisb., Parad. Lond. (1805) t. 78.
Fragrant peony; Chinese. bai shao yao; Vietnamese. thouc ruoc; Japanese. shaku-yaku; Korean. hambagggot.
E Siberia, Mongolia, China, Korea.
In numerous countries used as ornamental. In China, Korea,, and Japan also cultivated for the roots, used for medicinal purposes.
Ref.: Baik et al. 1986, 69; Chi & Park 1993, 158; Crevost & Pételot 1929, 1; Duong 1993, 528 pp; Ichimura 1932, 100 pl.; Ohwi 1965, 1067 pp.; Vul'f & Maleeva 1969, 566 pp.; Xiao 1991, 305; Xiao & Peng 1993, 111.
(2001)  Page(s) 1331.  
Paeonia obovata Maxim., Prim. fl. amur. (1859) 29.
Japanese. benibana-yama-shakuyaku; Korean. sanhambagggot.
Japan, Korea, China, Russia (Uda, Amur, Sakhalin).
In Korea grown as medicinal plant. The roots are used medicinally.
ref.: Bail et al. 1986, 69.
(2001)  Page(s) 445.  
From the crossing R. dumalis Bechst. x R. pendulina var. salaevensis (Rap.) R. Keller the cultivar 'Vitaminrose Piro 3' was selected in Germany, cultivated in central Germany and Netherlands on a rather large scale.
(2001)  Page(s) 450.  
Rosa banksiae Aiton, Hort. kew. ed. 2, 3 (1811) 258.
Rosa inermis Roxb., Fl. Ind. ed. 2, 2 (1832) 516, non Mill. (1767), nec Bosc (1821), nec Luce (1823); R. banksiae var. alboplena Rehder ex L.H. Bailey, Stand. cycl. hort. 5 (1916) 2988.
Banksian rose; German Banks Rose; phuang roi (Thailand).
China, Japan.
Cultivated in India and in central Iraq.
The cortex of the root is used for tanning; roots and leaves are drugs in India and China and used in the folk medicine.
Ref.: Ghora & Panigrahi 1995, 481 pp.; Husain & Kasim 1975, 275 pp.; Wealth of India 9, 1972.
(2001)  Page(s) 448.  
Rosa beggeriana Schrenk ex Fisch. & Mey., Enum. pl. nov. (1841) 73.
Rosa anserinaefolia Boiss., Diagn. pl. orient., ser. 1, 6 (1845) 51; R. silverhjelmii Schrenk in Bull. Acad. Sci. St. Pétersb. 2(1847) 195; R. lehmanniana Bunge in Mém. Sav. Etr. Acad. Sci. St. Pétersb. 7 (1854) 287; R. regelii Reuter, Cat. Grain Jard. Bot. Genève (1867) 4.
Russian roza beggera.
Iran, Middle Asia, Afghanistan, W Pakistan W China.
Because of its high Vitamin C content cultivation and use of the fruits in the Ukraine.
Ref.: Komarov 10, 1941; Vul'f & Maleeva 1969, 566 pp.
(2001)  Page(s) 447.  
Rosa californica Chamisso & Schlechtend. in Linnaea 2 (1827) 35.
Californian rose; German Kaliformische Rose.
North America (from Oregon to Lower California).
Occasionally cultivated for the fruits in the USA.
Ref.: Sánchez-Monge 1981, 467 pp.
(2001)  Page(s) 449.  
Rosa chinensis Jacq., Observ. bot. 3 (1768) 7, t.55.
Rosa sinica L., Syst Voy. ed. 13(1774) 394, Forma calyce monstr.; R. indica sensu Lour., Fl. cochinch. (1790) 323, non L. (1753); R. nankinensis Lour., l.c.323; R. semperflorens beta Lawr., Roses (1799) t.26; R. bengalensis beta chinensis Pers. Syn. Pl.2 (1806) 50; R. indica vulgaris Thory in Redouté, Roses 1 (1817) 51; R. indica var. bengalensis K. Koch, Hort. dendrol. (1853) 122.
China rose, Bengal rose; German Chinesische Rose; Chinese (tsiao mui hoa); kat gulab, kanta (Bengal); Korean wõlkyéhwa.
China, precise wild area unknown.
In many forms for a long time in cultivation as ornamental shrub in many countries of the world. In India cultivated for its fruits. They are used also as a drug.
Ref.: Ghora & Panigrahi 1995, 481 pp.; Hegi IV (2), 1923; Komarov 10, 1941, Wealth of India 9, 1972.
(2001)  Page(s) 443.  
Rosa damascena Mill., Gard. dict. ed. 8 (1768) no. 15.
Rosa belgica Mill., l.c., no. 17; R. calendarum Borkh., Vers. forstbot. Beschr. (1790) 338; R. multiflora vel polyantha Rössig, Ökon.-bot. Beschr. Ros. 1 (1799) 69, nom. altern., non R. multiflora Thunb. (1784); R. polyanthus Rössig, Rosen (1802) no. 35; Rosa bifera Pers., Syn. Pl. 2 (1806) 48; R. gallica var. damascena Voss, Vilmorins Blumengärtn. 1 (1894) 254; R. damascena f. trigintipetala Keller ex Asch. & Graebn., Syn. mitteleur. Fl. 6, 1 (1900) 52.
Damasc rose; German Damaszener Rose, Portlandrose; French rose de damas, rose de Puteaux; Russian roza damasskaja; Chinese du jue qiang wei; Sanskrit shatapatri; Hindi gulab ke phul, fosli gulab; Korean punhongkkothyangjanmi.
Only known in cultivation.
R. damascena is of hybrid origin from crossings betwee R. gallica L. and R. phoenicia Boiss. or R. moschata Herrm., probably in Syria.
Cultivated in S France, S Italy, Morocco, Libya, Turkey, Ukraine, Crimea, Caucasus, Syria, India, China and N Korea, sometimes escaped.
One of the most important Rosa species for flowers use. The rose oil is used for fine perfumes and as aroma for foodstuffs. Fruits are used for beverages and sweets. In Java young leaves and shoots are eaten as a delicacy. In India buds, flowers and fruits are drugs.
About 300 years ago R. damascena and its cultivation and processing procedure were introduced into Bularia and further on into the other countries in Europe and Africa from Turkey. With the highly productive cultivar 'Trigintipetala' an area of intensive commercial production of rose oil in the surrounding of Kazanlâk (Bulgaria) was developed.
Ref.: Backer & Van den Brink 1, 1963; Gildemeister & Hoffmann 5, 1969; Hammer et al. 1987, 323; Hammer et al. 1988, 475; Hegi IV (2), 1923; Krüssmann 3, 1978; Ochs & Van den Brink 1931, 1005 pp.; Rehm & Espig 1976, 496 pp.; Singh 1970, 175; Singh & Deolia 1963, 76; Terra 1966, 107 pp.; Wealth of India 9, 1972; Widrlechner 1981, 42.
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