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'R. carolina' rose References
Website/Catalog  (2018)  
Rosa carolina Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 492. 1753.
Carolina or pasture rose, rosier de Caroline
Shrubs or subshrubs, forming scattered populations. Stems spreading and weak, sometimes erect, slender, 3–10(–13) dm, openly branched; bark dull reddish brown, glabrous; infrastipular prickles usually paired, erect, sometimes declined, rarely curved, flat, subulate, (2–)3–9 × 1.5–3 mm, ˂base glabrous˃, internodal prickles sparsely or densely mixed with aciculi, stipitate glands and smaller internodal prickles. Leaves 5–10(–16) cm; stipules 10–18(–23) × 2–3 mm, auricles flared, 2–4 mm, margins entire or subserrate, eglandular or finely stipitate-glandular, surfaces glabrous, rarely puberulent, eglandular; petiole and rachis sometimes with pricklets ˂3 mm˃, aciculi few, glabrous, rarely pubescent, rarely stipitate-glandular; leaflets (3–)5–7(–9), terminal: petiolule 4–11 mm, blade ovate, elliptic, or lanceolate, 18–50 × 9–28 mm, membranous, base cuneate, margins 1–2+-serrate, teeth 8–14(–18) per side, eglandular or gland-tipped, apex acute to acuminate, rarely obtuse, abaxial surfaces pale green, glabrous, rarely pubescent, eglandular or glandular, adaxial usually green, dull, rarely slightly lustrous, glabrous. Inflorescences corymbs, 1–3(–6)-flowered. Pedicels erect, slender, 5–19 mm, glabrous, sparsely to ± densely stipitate-glandular, sometimes eglandular; bracts 2, lanceolate, 10–17 × 2–4 mm, margins entire, usually eglandular, surfaces with sparse hairs, stipitate-glandular. Flowers 3–5.5 cm diam.; hypanthium globose or ovoid, 4–6(–8) × 3.5–5(–8) mm, glabrous, ± densely to sparsely stipitate-glandular, sometimes eglandular, neck (0–)0.5–1 × 2 mm; sepals reflexed, sometimes spreading, lanceolate, 10–22 × 2–3 mm, tip 2–10 × 0.5–1 mm, margins pinnatifid or entire, abaxial surfaces rarely puberulent, stipitate-glandular, rarely eglandular; petals single, pink, 15–24 × 13–19 mm; ˂stamens 105˃; carpels 32–46, styles exsert 1 mm beyond stylar orifice (1.5–2 mm diam.) of hypanthial disc (4–5 mm diam.). Hips red or orange-red, globose or depressed-globose, rarely ellipsoid, 7–14 × 6–15 mm, fleshy, glabrous, densely to sparsely stipitate-glandular, sometimes eglandular, neck 0–0.5 × 5–6 mm; sepals early deciduous, spreading to reflexed. Achenes basal, 2–6(–10), tan, 4–5 × 2.5–3 mm.
Subspecies 3 (2 in the flora): North America, ne Mexico.
Rosa carolina is a polymorphic allotetraploid derived from diploids found in eastern North America (S. Joly et al. 2006). Two nothospecies representing presumptive secondary hybridization and introgression are R. ×medioccidentis W. H. Lewis (R. arkansana × R. carolina) in Iowa, eastern Kansas, and western Missouri, and R. ×novae-angliae W. H. Lewis (R. carolina × R. virginiana) of New England, infrequently south to the District of Columbia, nearby Virginia, and New Jersey (W. H. Lewis 2008).
The Menominee of Wisconsin once ate hips of Rosa carolina to treat gastrointestinal problems (H. I. Smith 1923).
Subspecies mexicoensis W. H. Lewis is found in the Sierra Madre Oriental of northeastern Mexico (Coahuila, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas).
SELECTED REFERENCE Lewis, W. H. 2008. Rosa carolina (Rosaceae) subspecies and hybrids in eastern and midwestern United States, Canada, and Mexico. Novon 18: 192–198.
Website/Catalog  (2018)  
Rosa carolina Linnaeus subsp. carolina
Rosa aucuparia Rydberg; R. carolina var. grandiflora (Baker) Rehder; R. carolina var. villosa (Best) Rehder; R. humilis Marshall; R. lyonii Pursh; R. parviflora Ehrhart; R. serrulata Rafinesque
Article (magazine)  (2006)  Page(s) 412.  
In the east, two groups of diploids were found: one consists of R. blanda and R. woodsii and the other of R. foliolosa, R. nitida, and R. palustris. Only eastern diploids are involved in the origins of the polyploids. Rosa arkansana is derived from the blanda–woodsii group, R. virginiana originated from the foliolosa–nitida–palustris group, and R. carolina is derived from a hybrid between the two diploid groups. The distinct origins of these polyploid taxa support the hypothesis that the three polyploids are separate species.....
....the tetraploid taxa R. arkansana Porter, R. carolina L., and R. virginiana Mill. are characterized by extensive continuous morphological variation that blurs their limits with each other and with their putative diploid ancestors in the R. carolina complex.
....Rosa carolina is different from R. arkansana in that all except two individuals investigated have alleles from both the blanda–woodsii and the foliolosa–nitida–palustris diploid groups. Given the wide geographic distribution of the individuals sampled, we can affirm that R. carolina is an allopolyploid with one parent from the blanda–woodsii diploid group and the other from the foliolosa–nitida–palustris group. The deviation from a 1:1 ratio of parental alleles expected for allopolyploids observed in some individuals is probably the result of either segregation of homologous chromosomes or introgression.
Book  (2002)  Page(s) 84.  
R. carolina Species, medium pink. Rated 8.1
Book  (2002)  
Rosa carolina. Carolina or Pasture Rose.
Zones: 4-9; sun, part sun
Soil: Moist to dry
Native to: Upland woods, dunes, prairies, and fencerows; Maine to Minnesota south to Texas and Florida
Size: Height 2-3 feet, width 3-4 feet
Color: Light to dark pink; blooms in summer
Carolina rose is similar in many respects to Virginia rose (R. virginiana), but its leaflets are a bit narrower, glossy, dark green and pointed, and its stems are set with both back-curved infrastipular thorns just below the leaf base and bristly spines along the internodes. flowers are held up singly or in pairs from the new growth, and like many other rose blooms, often open darker and fade over two to three days to light pink. The petioles, young stems, and shining hips are deep crimson. is not too expansive n the garden and the leaves and stiff stems are very attractive. In the wild it spreads to form loose, patchy colonies, but is much thicker and mounded in cultivation. It is one of the best species for the Southeast, and is fairly cold-hardy, though it may experience some dieback in Zone 4.
Article (magazine)  (2001)  Page(s) 393.  
R. carolina L. Ploidy 2x
Pollen fertility 86.3%
Selfed Fruit set 0%
Book  (2000)  Page(s) 50.  Includes photo(s).
Rosa carolina/’Caroline Rose’/’Pasture Rose’ = Trapu ou de taille moyenne, cet arbuste touffu produit à foison des drageons bardés d’aiguillons, mais le bois plus âgé est à peine épineux… feuillage dense, vert foncé, légèrement luisant, chaque feuille composée de 5 folioles elliptiques et dentées… fleurs rose pur, solitaires, suivies de fruits globuleux rouge vif… bons arbustes compacts à planter en groupe ou en haie basse et ne craignant pas les sols pauvres. Amérique du Nord, 1826.
Book  (Feb 1999)  Page(s) 10-11.  Includes photo(s).
Pasture Rose One of Taylor's 50 Best Roses. Description, vital statistics, and care advice... native to the eastern United States...
Book  (Nov 1998)  Page(s) 11.  
R. carolina Relatively thornless. Height and width: 3 ft. Flowers: single, soft pink, fragrant...
Book  (1994)  Page(s) 12.  
Carolinae... The roses from Carolina... the only ones which enjoy growing in wet ground and in mild shade... distinct from other roses in that the autumn leaves can be very richly coloured in shades of scarlet, orange and gold.
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